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      E. MATHEMATICS
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       G. POLI-FINANCE
       H. SLIDE SHOW
 
      I. SUMMARY    
      J. SUPPORTS
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          MANAGEMENT
          PRODUCTIVITY

 04. MOTIVATION
     
A. ARITHMETIC
      B. BESTPEDAL
      C. EPOCH MAKERS
      D. HANDICAPPED
      E. LEADS FOR

          SELF 
          SOCIAL
      F. SELF
MOTIVATION
          EXAMPLES
          DESTRUCTIVE
      G. SOCIAL MOTIVATN
          EXAMPLES
          DESTRUCIVE
  
  H. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 05.   MUSIC 
        
A. ARABIAN
         B. COLOUR CDs
         C. DIATONIC

        
D. EASTERN
        
E. INNOVATION
        
F. RAGAMS
         G. TEMPERED
        
H. VIEWER'S VIEWS
         I.  WESTERN
    -------------------------- 
 
05A. HEXOCTAL
        
A. ADMIRATION
         B. ARABIC
         C. CODE SET
         D. DIATONIC
         E. ENGLISH
         F. GERMAN
         G. HINDI
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        M. SCOTTISH          
        N.  TEMPERED
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 06. NEW-CONCEPTS 
     
A. DEVELOPMENT
      B. PHYSICS
 07. PUBLICATIONS    
     
A. ARTICLES
          ECONOMICS
          PRODUCTIVITY
          MANPOWER
          MATERIALS
          RESOURCE
          R & D
          TRAINING
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       B. PICTURES  
           ANIMALS
           BIOLOGY
           BIRDS
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           FLOWERS
           FRUITS
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           INSTITUTIONS
           LANDSCAPES
           MONUMENTS 
           NATURE
           PLANTS
           TRANSPORT
           TREES
            SPORTS
            STARS 
      
C. VIEWER'S VIEWS 
 09. SMART-THOUGHTS 
      
A. ALEXANDER
       B. ACHIEVEMENT
       C. ECONOMICS
       D. LION
       E. PHILOSOPHY
       F. SCIENCE
       G. TSUMANI
       H. UNIVERSE

       I. VIEWER'S VIEWS
 10. SOCIO-ECONOMIC
       A. ARTILECT        
       B. BUSH

      
C. CONCEPTS
       D DETAILS
       E. INDIRA GANDHI
       F. NOBEL
       G. POLI-FINANCE
       H. SLIDE SHOW
       
I. SUMMARY          
      J. SUPPORTS
      K. VIEWER'S VIEW   
 11. SOFTWARE (SW)
       A. APPLICATION
      
B. ARTILECT 
       C. BOOTING       
    
  D. CORPORATE
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       G. JOB SW
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      M
. VIEWER'S VIEW      
 12.  STARS & SKY     
      
A. ASTRONOMY
       B. CONSTELLATIONS
           INDIAN
           WESTERN
       C. ENMALISP
       D. GREEK ALFA
       E. MID NORTH
       F. NEAR NORTH
       G. STARS
            INDIAN
            WESTERN 
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       I. VIEWER'S VIEW
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       TOPICS 
       VIEWER'S VIEWS
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       F. BOOKS
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       H. CFTC, LONDON
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       N. NOBEL 
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 01.FACULTYSHIPS
      ASSOCIATION
      COLLEGE
      CORPORATE
      GOVERNMENT
      INSTITUTIONS
      PRECAUTIONS
      SCHOOLS
      SOCIETIES
      UNIVERSITIES    
      VIEWER'S VIEWS
      WISDOM  
 02. INNOVATION
     
A. BIO-CHEMISTRY
      B. ENMALISP
      C. EXAMPLES
      D. MAIN CONCEPTS
      E. MATHEMATICS
      F.  CATALYST
     
G. MUSIC
      H. COLOUR DISC
       I. ORGANIC
      J.  INORGANIC
      K. PHYSICS

      L. STUDIOUS
      M. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 03. MANAGEMENT 
      
A. ARTILECT  
       B
. BE HAPPY
       C.
CONCEPTS
       D. DETAILS
       E. INDIRA GANDHI
       F. NOBEL
       G. POLI-FINANCE
       H. SLIDE SHOW
 
      I. SUMMARY    
      J. SUPPORTS
      K. VIEWER'S VIEWS  
          MANAGEMENT
          PRODUCTIVITY

 04. MOTIVATION
     
A. ARITHMETIC
      B. BESTPEDAL
      C. EPOCH MAKERS
      D. HANDICAPPED
      E. LEADS FOR

          SELF 
          SOCIAL
      F. SELF
MOTIVATION
          EXAMPLES
          DESTRUCTIVE
      G. SOCIAL MOTIVATN
          EXAMPLES
          DESTRUCIVE
  
  H. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 05.   MUSIC 
        
A. ARABIAN
         B. COLOUR CDs
         C. DIATONIC

        
D. EASTERN
        
E. INNOVATION
        
F. RAGAMS
         G. TEMPERED
        
H. VIEWER'S VIEWS
         I.  WESTERN
    -------------------------- 
 
05A. HEXOCTAL
        
A. ADMIRATION
         B. ARABIC
         C. CODE SET
         D. DIATONIC
         E. ENGLISH
         F. GERMAN
         G. HINDI
         H. KARNATAK
         I . KARNATAK KB
        J. MELODY
        K. PRIMARY RAGAM
        L. PUSHTU
        M. SCOTTISH          
        N.  TEMPERED
        O. URUDU    
    
   P. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 06. NEW-CONCEPTS 
     
A. DEVELOPMENT
      B. PHYSICS
 07. PUBLICATIONS    
     
A. ARTICLES
          ECONOMICS
          PRODUCTIVITY
          MANPOWER
          MATERIALS
          RESOURCE
          R & D
          TRAINING
      B.BOOKS
      C. REPEC
      D. SSRN  
 08. QUOTATIONS
       A. WORDS
       B. PICTURES  
           ANIMALS
           BIOLOGY
           BIRDS
           BOTANICAL
           BUILDINGS
           FLOWERS
           FRUITS
           HISTORICAL
           INSTITUTIONS
           LANDSCAPES
           MONUMENTS 
           NATURE
           PLANTS
           TRANSPORT
           TREES
            SPORTS
            STARS 
      
C. VIEWER'S VIEWS 
 09. SMART-THOUGHTS 
      
A. ALEXANDER
       B. ACHIEVEMENT
       C. ECONOMICS
       D. LION
       E. PHILOSOPHY
       F. SCIENCE
       G. TSUMANI
       H. UNIVERSE

       I. VIEWER'S VIEWS
 10. SOCIO-ECONOMIC
       A. ARTILECT        
       B. BUSH

      
C. CONCEPTS
       D DETAILS
       E. INDIRA GANDHI
       F. NOBEL
       G. POLI-FINANCE
       H. SLIDE SHOW
       
I. SUMMARY          
      J. SUPPORTS
      K. VIEWER'S VIEW   
 11. SOFTWARE (SW)
       A. APPLICATION
      
B. ARTILECT 
       C. BOOTING       
    
  D. CORPORATE
       E. DESIGNS
       F. HARDARE
       G. JOB SW
       H. OP.SYSTEM
       I. ORGANISATION SW
      J. SW QUALITY
      K. SW UTILITY
      L. UTILITY SW
      M
. VIEWER'S VIEW      
 12.  STARS & SKY     
      
A. ASTRONOMY
       B. CONSTELLATIONS
           INDIAN
           WESTERN
       C. ENMALISP
       D. GREEK ALFA
       E. MID NORTH
       F. NEAR NORTH
       G. STARS
            INDIAN
            WESTERN 
       H. SUN
       I. VIEWER'S VIEW
      J. ZODIAC
 13. VIEWR'S VIEWS
       ABOUT DRVSRS     
       DEVELOPMENT   
       COUNTRY
       FACULTY
       FEED BACK
       INNOVATION
       MANAGEMENT
       MOTIVATION
       MUSIC
       NAMES
       PRODUCTIVITY
       PROFESSION
       QUOTATIONS
       SOFTWARE
       STARS
       TOPICS 
       VIEWER'S VIEWS
       WEB CLASSES
 14. KEY-WORDS
        FAQ   A TO Z
       ANIMATIONS
       FLAGS
       HAPPY
       JOKES
       MELODIES
       QUOTATIONS
 15. DR.VSRS
       A. ABOUT 
       B. ACADEMIC
       C. ACHIEVEMENT
       D. ASSIGNMENTS
       E. ASSISTANCE
       F. BOOKS
       G. CDB, BARBADOS
       H. CFTC, LONDON
       I. CONTACT          
      J.  FAMILY TREE
       K.  HOME  
       L. INNOVATIONS
       M. ISO 90001:2000
       N. NOBEL 
       O. PRIME PAPERS
       P. QUALITYAUDITOR
       Q. SITE MAP
       R SOCIAL WORK
       S. VIEWER'S VIEWS
       T. WORLD TRAVEL       
 16.  CLOSE  

SPECIALITY

Contact :  Dr.VSRS  

GO TO HOME PAGE

 ANIMATION OF HAPPINESS - CLICK
 JOKES MENU - CLICK    LAUGH
 MATTER  SMART - CLICK
 MELODY MENU - CLICK
 PICTURE MENU - CLICK
 QUOTATIONS - CLICK
RECIPES

FEATURES

Contact :  Dr.VSRS  

GO TO HOME PAGE

 A.  ASSISTANCE
 B BOOKS
 F.   
 H.  HELP (FAQ)
  L.    LATEST SITE
  S.  SITE MAP

ON THE WEB FROM AUGUST 01, 2001

LAST UPDATE

RESEARCH &
DEVELOPMENT
CENTRE
RePEc  SSRN

 GET 
CLICK & GET DRVSRS TOOL BAR
 TOOL BAR

03

 01.FACULTYSHIPS
      ASSOCIATION
      COLLEGE
      CORPORATE
      GOVERNMENT
      INSTITUTIONS
      PRECAUTIONS
      SCHOOLS
      SOCIETIES
      UNIVERSITIES    
      VIEWER'S VIEWS
      WISDOM  
 02. INNOVATION
     
A. BIO-CHEMISTRY
      B. ENMALISP
      C. EXAMPLES
      D. MAIN CONCEPTS
      E. MATHEMATICS
      F.  CATALYST
     
G. MUSIC
      H. COLOUR DISC
       I. ORGANIC
      J.  INORGANIC
      K. PHYSICS

      L. STUDIOUS
      M. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 03. MANAGEMENT 
      
A. ARTILECT  
       B
. BE HAPPY
       C.
CONCEPTS
       D. DETAILS
       E. INDIRA GANDHI
       F. NOBEL
       G. POLI-FINANCE
       H. SLIDE SHOW
 
      I. SUMMARY    
      J. SUPPORTS
      K. VIEWER'S VIEWS  
          MANAGEMENT
          PRODUCTIVITY

 04. MOTIVATION
     
A. ARITHMETIC
      B. BESTPEDAL
      C. EPOCH MAKERS
      D. HANDICAPPED
      E. LEADS FOR

          SELF 
          SOCIAL
      F. SELF
MOTIVATION
          EXAMPLES
          DESTRUCTIVE
      G. SOCIAL MOTIVATN
          EXAMPLES
          DESTRUCIVE
  
  H. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 05.   MUSIC 
        
A. ARABIAN
         B. COLOUR CDs
         C. DIATONIC

        
D. EASTERN
        
E. INNOVATION
        
F. RAGAMS
         G. TEMPERED
        
H. VIEWER'S VIEWS
         I.  WESTERN
    -------------------------- 
 
05A. HEXOCTAL
        
A. ADMIRATION
         B. ARABIC
         C. CODE SET
         D. DIATONIC
         E. ENGLISH
         F. GERMAN
         G. HINDI
         H. KARNATAK
         I . KARNATAK KB
        J. MELODY
        K. PRIMARY RAGAM
        L. PUSHTU
        M. SCOTTISH          
        N.  TEMPERED
        O. URUDU    
    
   P. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 06. NEW-CONCEPTS 
     
A. DEVELOPMENT
      B. PHYSICS
 07. PUBLICATIONS    
     
A. ARTICLES
          ECONOMICS
          PRODUCTIVITY
          MANPOWER
          MATERIALS
          RESOURCE
          R & D
          TRAINING
      B.BOOKS
      C. REPEC
      D. SSRN  
08. QUOTATIONS
       A. WORDS
       B. PICTURES  
           ANIMALS
           BIOLOGY
           BIRDS
           BOTANICAL
           BUILDINGS
           FLOWERS
           FRUITS
           HISTORICAL
           INSTITUTIONS
           LANDSCAPES
           MONUMENTS 
           NATURE
           PLANTS
           TRANSPORT
           TREES
            SPORTS
            STARS 
      
C. VIEWER'S VIEWS 
 09. SMART-THOUGHTS 
      
A. ALEXANDER
       B. ACHIEVEMENT
       C. ECONOMICS
       D. LION
       E. PHILOSOPHY
       F. SCIENCE
       G. TSUMANI
       H. UNIVERSE

       I. VIEWER'S VIEWS
 10. SOCIO-ECONOMIC
       A. ARTILECT        
       B. BUSH

      
C. CONCEPTS
       D DETAILS
       E. INDIRA GANDHI
       F. NOBEL
       G. POLI-FINANCE
       H. SLIDE SHOW
       
I. SUMMARY          
      J. SUPPORTS
      K. VIEWER'S VIEW   
 11. SOFTWARE (SW)
       A. APPLICATION
      
B. ARTILECT 
       C. BOOTING       
    
  D. CORPORATE
       E. DESIGNS
       F. HARDARE
       G. JOB SW
       H. OP.SYSTEM
       I. ORGANISATION SW
      J. SW QUALITY
      K. SW UTILITY
      L. UTILITY SW
      M
. VIEWER'S VIEW      
 12.  STARS & SKY     
      
A. ASTRONOMY
       B. CONSTELLATIONS
           INDIAN
           WESTERN
       C. ENMALISP
       D. GREEK ALFA
       E. MID NORTH
       F. NEAR NORTH
       G. STARS
            INDIAN
            WESTERN 
       H. SUN
       I. VIEWER'S VIEW
      J. ZODIAC
 13. VIEWR'S VIEWS
       ABOUT DRVSRS     
       DEVELOPMENT   
       COUNTRY
       FACULTY
       FEED BACK
       INNOVATION
       MANAGEMENT
       MOTIVATION
       MUSIC
       NAMES
       PRODUCTIVITY
       PROFESSION
       QUOTATIONS
       SOFTWARE
       STARS
       TOPICS 
       VIEWER'S VIEWS
       WEB CLASSES
 14. KEY-WORDS
        FAQ   A TO Z
       ANIMATIONS
       FLAGS
       HAPPY
       JOKES
       MELODIES
       QUOTATIONS
 H.  HELP (FAQ)
  L.    LATEST SITE
  S.  SITE MAP

ON THE WEB FROM AUGUST 01, 2001

LAST UPDATE

RESEARCH &
DEVELOPMENT
CENTRE
RePEc  SSRN

04

 01.FACULTYSHIPS
      ASSOCIATION
      COLLEGE
      CORPORATE
      GOVERNMENT
      INSTITUTIONS
      PRECAUTIONS
      SCHOOLS
      SOCIETIES
      UNIVERSITIES    
      VIEWER'S VIEWS
      WISDOM  
 02. INNOVATION
     
A. BIO-CHEMISTRY
      B. ENMALISP
      C. EXAMPLES
      D. MAIN CONCEPTS
      E. MATHEMATICS
      F.  CATALYST
     
G. MUSIC
      H. COLOUR DISC
       I. ORGANIC
      J.  INORGANIC
      K. PHYSICS

      L. STUDIOUS
      M. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 03. MANAGEMENT 
      
A. ARTILECT  
       B
. BE HAPPY
       C.
CONCEPTS
       D. DETAILS
       E. INDIRA GANDHI
       F. NOBEL
       G. POLI-FINANCE
       H. SLIDE SHOW
 
      I. SUMMARY    
      J. SUPPORTS
      K. VIEWER'S VIEWS  
          MANAGEMENT
          PRODUCTIVITY

 04. MOTIVATION
     
A. ARITHMETIC
      B. BESTPEDAL
      C. EPOCH MAKERS
      D. HANDICAPPED
      E. LEADS FOR

          SELF 
          SOCIAL
      F. SELF
MOTIVATION
          EXAMPLES
          DESTRUCTIVE
      G. SOCIAL MOTIVATN
          EXAMPLES
          DESTRUCIVE
  
  H. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 05.   MUSIC 
        
A. ARABIAN
         B. COLOUR CDs
         C. DIATONIC

        
D. EASTERN
        
E. INNOVATION
        
F. RAGAMS
         G. TEMPERED
        
H. VIEWER'S VIEWS
         I.  WESTERN
    -------------------------- 
 
05A. HEXOCTAL
        
A. ADMIRATION
         B. ARABIC
         C. CODE SET
         D. DIATONIC
         E. ENGLISH
         F. GERMAN
         G. HINDI
         H. KARNATAK
         I . KARNATAK KB
        J. MELODY
        K. PRIMARY RAGAM
        L. PUSHTU
        M. SCOTTISH          
        N.  TEMPERED
        O. URUDU    
    
   P. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 06. NEW-CONCEPTS 
     
A. DEVELOPMENT
      B. PHYSICS
 07. PUBLICATIONS    
     
A. ARTICLES
          ECONOMICS
          PRODUCTIVITY
          MANPOWER
          MATERIALS
          RESOURCE
          R & D
          TRAINING
      B.BOOKS
      C. REPEC
      D. SSRN  
08. QUOTATIONS
       A. WORDS
       B. PICTURES  
           ANIMALS
           BIOLOGY
           BIRDS
           BOTANICAL
           BUILDINGS
           FLOWERS
           FRUITS
           HISTORICAL
           INSTITUTIONS
           LANDSCAPES
           MONUMENTS 
           NATURE
           PLANTS
           TRANSPORT
           TREES
            SPORTS
            STARS 
      
C. VIEWER'S VIEWS 
 09. SMART-THOUGHTS 
      
A. ALEXANDER
       B. ACHIEVEMENT
       C. ECONOMICS
       D. LION
       E. PHILOSOPHY
       F. SCIENCE
       G. TSUMANI
       H. UNIVERSE

       I. VIEWER'S VIEWS
 10. SOCIO-ECONOMIC
       A. ARTILECT        
       B. BUSH

      
C. CONCEPTS
       D DETAILS
       E. INDIRA GANDHI
       F. NOBEL
       G. POLI-FINANCE
       H. SLIDE SHOW
       
I. SUMMARY          
      J. SUPPORTS
      K. VIEWER'S VIEW   
 11. SOFTWARE (SW)
       A. APPLICATION
      
B. ARTILECT 
       C. BOOTING       
    
  D. CORPORATE
       E. DESIGNS
       F. HARDARE
       G. JOB SW
       H. OP.SYSTEM
       I. ORGANISATION SW
      J. SW QUALITY
      K. SW UTILITY
      L. UTILITY SW
      M
. VIEWER'S VIEW      
 12.  STARS & SKY     
      
A. ASTRONOMY
       B. CONSTELLATIONS
           INDIAN
           WESTERN
       C. ENMALISP
       D. GREEK ALFA
       E. MID NORTH
       F. NEAR NORTH
       G. STARS
            INDIAN
            WESTERN 
       H. SUN
       I. VIEWER'S VIEW
      J. ZODIAC
 13. VIEWR'S VIEWS
       ABOUT DRVSRS     
       DEVELOPMENT   
       COUNTRY
       FACULTY
       FEED BACK
       INNOVATION
       MANAGEMENT
       MOTIVATION
       MUSIC
       NAMES
       PRODUCTIVITY
       PROFESSION
       QUOTATIONS
       SOFTWARE
       STARS
       TOPICS 
       VIEWER'S VIEWS
       WEB CLASSES
 14. KEY-WORDS
        FAQ   A TO Z
       ANIMATIONS
       FLAGS
       HAPPY
       JOKES
       MELODIES
       QUOTATIONS
 15. DR.VSRS
       A. ABOUT 
       B. ACADEMIC
       C. ACHIEVEMENT
       D. ASSIGNMENTS
       E. ASSISTANCE
       F. BOOKS
       G. CDB, BARBADOS
       H. CFTC, LONDON
       I. CONTACT          
      J.  FAMILY TREE
       K.  HOME  
       L. INNOVATIONS
       M. ISO 90001:2000
       N. NOBEL 
       O. PRIME PAPERS
       P. QUALITYAUDITOR
       Q. SITE MAP
       R SOCIAL WORK
       S. VIEWER'S VIEWS
       T. WORLD TRAVEL       
16.  CLOSE

FEATURES

Contact :  Dr.VSRS  

GO TO HOME PAGE

 A.  ASSISTANCE
 B BOOKS
 F.   
 H.  HELP (FAQ)
  L.    LATEST SITE
  S.  SITE MAP

ON THE WEB FROM AUGUST 01, 2001

LAST UPDATE

RESEARCH &
DEVELOPMENT
CENTRE
RePEc  SSRN

05

 01.FACULTYSHIPS
      ASSOCIATION
      COLLEGE
      CORPORATE
      GOVERNMENT
      INSTITUTIONS
      PRECAUTIONS
      SCHOOLS
      SOCIETIES
      UNIVERSITIES    
      VIEWER'S VIEWS
      WISDOM  
 02. INNOVATION
     
A. BIO-CHEMISTRY
      B. ENMALISP
      C. EXAMPLES
      D. MAIN CONCEPTS
      E. MATHEMATICS
      F.  CATALYST
     
G. MUSIC
      H. COLOUR DISC
       I. ORGANIC
      J.  INORGANIC
      K. PHYSICS

      L. STUDIOUS
      M. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 03. MANAGEMENT 
      
A. ARTILECT  
       B
. BE HAPPY
       C.
CONCEPTS
       D. DETAILS
       E. INDIRA GANDHI
       F. NOBEL
       G. POLI-FINANCE
       H. SLIDE SHOW
 
      I. SUMMARY    
      J. SUPPORTS
      K. VIEWER'S VIEWS  
          MANAGEMENT
          PRODUCTIVITY

 04. MOTIVATION
     
A. ARITHMETIC
      B. BESTPEDAL
      C. EPOCH MAKERS
      D. HANDICAPPED
      E. LEADS FOR

          SELF 
          SOCIAL
      F. SELF
MOTIVATION
          EXAMPLES
          DESTRUCTIVE
      G. SOCIAL MOTIVATN
          EXAMPLES
          DESTRUCIVE
  
  H. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 05.   MUSIC 
        
A. ARABIAN
         B. COLOUR CDs
         C. DIATONIC

        
D. EASTERN
        
E. INNOVATION
        
F. RAGAMS
         G. TEMPERED
        
H. VIEWER'S VIEWS
         I.  WESTERN
    -------------------------- 
 
05A. HEXOCTAL
        
A. ADMIRATION
         B. ARABIC
         C. CODE SET
         D. DIATONIC
         E. ENGLISH
         F. GERMAN
         G. HINDI
         H. KARNATAK
         I . KARNATAK KB
        J. MELODY
        K. PRIMARY RAGAM
        L. PUSHTU
        M. SCOTTISH          
        N.  TEMPERED
        O. URUDU    
    
   P. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 06. NEW-CONCEPTS 
     
A. DEVELOPMENT
      B. PHYSICS
 07. PUBLICATIONS    
     
A. ARTICLES
          ECONOMICS
          PRODUCTIVITY
          MANPOWER
          MATERIALS
          RESOURCE
          R & D
          TRAINING
      B.BOOKS
      C. REPEC
      D. SSRN  
08. QUOTATIONS
       A. WORDS
       B. PICTURES  
           ANIMALS
           BIOLOGY
           BIRDS
           BOTANICAL
           BUILDINGS
           FLOWERS
           FRUITS
           HISTORICAL
           INSTITUTIONS
           LANDSCAPES
           MONUMENTS 
           NATURE
           PLANTS
           TRANSPORT
           TREES
            SPORTS
            STARS 
      
C. VIEWER'S VIEWS 
 09. SMART-THOUGHTS 
      
A. ALEXANDER
       B. ACHIEVEMENT
       C. ECONOMICS
       D. LION
       E. PHILOSOPHY
       F. SCIENCE
       G. TSUMANI
       H. UNIVERSE

       I. VIEWER'S VIEWS
 10. SOCIO-ECONOMIC
       A. ARTILECT        
       B. BUSH

      
C. CONCEPTS
       D DETAILS
       E. INDIRA GANDHI
       F. NOBEL
       G. POLI-FINANCE
       H. SLIDE SHOW
       
I. SUMMARY          
      J. SUPPORTS
      K. VIEWER'S VIEW   
 11. SOFTWARE (SW)
       A. APPLICATION
      
B. ARTILECT 
       C. BOOTING       
    
  D. CORPORATE
       E. DESIGNS
       F. HARDARE
       G. JOB SW
       H. OP.SYSTEM
       I. ORGANISATION SW
      J. SW QUALITY
      K. SW UTILITY
      L. UTILITY SW
      M
. VIEWER'S VIEW      
 12.  STARS & SKY     
      
A. ASTRONOMY
       B. CONSTELLATIONS
           INDIAN
           WESTERN
       C. ENMALISP
       D. GREEK ALFA
       E. MID NORTH
       F. NEAR NORTH
       G. STARS
            INDIAN
            WESTERN 
       H. SUN
       I. VIEWER'S VIEW
      J. ZODIAC
 13. VIEWR'S VIEWS
       ABOUT DRVSRS     
       DEVELOPMENT   
       COUNTRY
       FACULTY
       FEED BACK
       INNOVATION
       MANAGEMENT
       MOTIVATION
       MUSIC
       NAMES
       PRODUCTIVITY
       PROFESSION
       QUOTATIONS
       SOFTWARE
       STARS
       TOPICS 
       VIEWER'S VIEWS
       WEB CLASSES
 14. KEY-WORDS
        FAQ   A TO Z
       ANIMATIONS
       FLAGS
       HAPPY
       JOKES
       MELODIES
       QUOTATIONS
 15. DR.VSRS
       A. ABOUT 
       B. ACADEMIC
       C. ACHIEVEMENT
       D. ASSIGNMENTS
       E. ASSISTANCE
       F. BOOKS
       G. CDB, BARBADOS
       H. CFTC, LONDON
       I. CONTACT          
      J.  FAMILY TREE
       K.  HOME  
       L. INNOVATIONS
       M. ISO 90001:2000
       N. NOBEL 
       O. PRIME PAPERS
       P. QUALITYAUDITOR
       Q. SITE MAP
       R SOCIAL WORK
       S. VIEWER'S VIEWS
       T. WORLD TRAVEL       
16.  CLOSE

FEATURES

Contact :  Dr.VSRS  

GO TO HOME PAGE

 A.  ASSISTANCE
 B BOOKS
 F.   
 H.  HELP (FAQ)
  L.    LATEST SITE
  S.  SITE MAP

ON THE WEB FROM AUGUST 01, 2001

LAST UPDATE

RESEARCH &
DEVELOPMENT
CENTRE
RePEc  SSRN

06

 01.FACULTYSHIPS
      ASSOCIATION
      COLLEGE
      CORPORATE
      GOVERNMENT
      INSTITUTIONS
      PRECAUTIONS
      SCHOOLS
      SOCIETIES
      UNIVERSITIES    
      VIEWER'S VIEWS
      WISDOM  
 02. INNOVATION
     
A. BIO-CHEMISTRY
      B. ENMALISP
      C. EXAMPLES
      D. MAIN CONCEPTS
      E. MATHEMATICS
      F.  CATALYST
     
G. MUSIC
      H. COLOUR DISC
       I. ORGANIC
      J.  INORGANIC
      K. PHYSICS

      L. STUDIOUS
      M. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 03. MANAGEMENT 
      
A. ARTILECT  
       B
. BE HAPPY
       C.
CONCEPTS
       D. DETAILS
       E. INDIRA GANDHI
       F. NOBEL
       G. POLI-FINANCE
       H. SLIDE SHOW
 
      I. SUMMARY    
      J. SUPPORTS
      K. VIEWER'S VIEWS  
          MANAGEMENT
          PRODUCTIVITY

 04. MOTIVATION
     
A. ARITHMETIC
      B. BESTPEDAL
      C. EPOCH MAKERS
      D. HANDICAPPED
      E. LEADS FOR

          SELF 
          SOCIAL
      F. SELF
MOTIVATION
          EXAMPLES
          DESTRUCTIVE
      G. SOCIAL MOTIVATN
          EXAMPLES
          DESTRUCIVE
  
  H. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 05.   MUSIC 
        
A. ARABIAN
         B. COLOUR CDs
         C. DIATONIC

        
D. EASTERN
        
E. INNOVATION
        
F. RAGAMS
         G. TEMPERED
        
H. VIEWER'S VIEWS
         I.  WESTERN
    -------------------------- 
 
05A. HEXOCTAL
        
A. ADMIRATION
         B. ARABIC
         C. CODE SET
         D. DIATONIC
         E. ENGLISH
         F. GERMAN
         G. HINDI
         H. KARNATAK
         I . KARNATAK KB
        J. MELODY
        K. PRIMARY RAGAM
        L. PUSHTU
        M. SCOTTISH          
        N.  TEMPERED
        O. URUDU    
    
   P. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 06. NEW-CONCEPTS 
     
A. DEVELOPMENT
      B. PHYSICS
 07. PUBLICATIONS    
     
A. ARTICLES
          ECONOMICS
          PRODUCTIVITY
          MANPOWER
          MATERIALS
          RESOURCE
          R & D
          TRAINING
      B.BOOKS
      C. REPEC
      D. SSRN  
08. QUOTATIONS
       A. WORDS
       B. PICTURES  
           ANIMALS
           BIOLOGY
           BIRDS
           BOTANICAL
           BUILDINGS
           FLOWERS
           FRUITS
           HISTORICAL
           INSTITUTIONS
           LANDSCAPES
           MONUMENTS 
           NATURE
           PLANTS
           TRANSPORT
           TREES
            SPORTS
            STARS 
      
C. VIEWER'S VIEWS 
 09. SMART-THOUGHTS 
      
A. ALEXANDER
       B. ACHIEVEMENT
       C. ECONOMICS
       D. LION
       E. PHILOSOPHY
       F. SCIENCE
       G. TSUMANI
       H. UNIVERSE

       I. VIEWER'S VIEWS
 10. SOCIO-ECONOMIC
       A. ARTILECT        
       B. BUSH

      
C. CONCEPTS
       D DETAILS
       E. INDIRA GANDHI
       F. NOBEL
       G. POLI-FINANCE
       H. SLIDE SHOW
       
I. SUMMARY          
      J. SUPPORTS
      K. VIEWER'S VIEW   
 11. SOFTWARE (SW)
       A. APPLICATION
      
B. ARTILECT 
       C. BOOTING       
    
  D. CORPORATE
       E. DESIGNS
       F. HARDARE
       G. JOB SW
       H. OP.SYSTEM
       I. ORGANISATION SW
      J. SW QUALITY
      K. SW UTILITY
      L. UTILITY SW
      M
. VIEWER'S VIEW      
 12.  STARS & SKY     
      
A. ASTRONOMY
       B. CONSTELLATIONS
           INDIAN
           WESTERN
       C. ENMALISP
       D. GREEK ALFA
       E. MID NORTH
       F. NEAR NORTH
       G. STARS
            INDIAN
            WESTERN 
       H. SUN
       I. VIEWER'S VIEW
      J. ZODIAC
 13. VIEWR'S VIEWS
       ABOUT DRVSRS     
       DEVELOPMENT   
       COUNTRY
       FACULTY
       FEED BACK
       INNOVATION
       MANAGEMENT
       MOTIVATION
       MUSIC
       NAMES
       PRODUCTIVITY
       PROFESSION
       QUOTATIONS
       SOFTWARE
       STARS
       TOPICS 
       VIEWER'S VIEWS
       WEB CLASSES
 14. KEY-WORDS
        FAQ   A TO Z
       ANIMATIONS
       FLAGS
       HAPPY
       JOKES
       MELODIES
       QUOTATIONS
 15. DR.VSRS
       A. ABOUT 
       B. ACADEMIC
       C. ACHIEVEMENT
       D. ASSIGNMENTS
       E. ASSISTANCE
       F. BOOKS
       G. CDB, BARBADOS
       H. CFTC, LONDON
       I. CONTACT          
      J.  FAMILY TREE
       K.  HOME  
       L. INNOVATIONS
       M. ISO 90001:2000
       N. NOBEL 
       O. PRIME PAPERS
       P. QUALITYAUDITOR
       Q. SITE MAP
       R SOCIAL WORK
       S. VIEWER'S VIEWS
       T. WORLD TRAVEL       
16.  CLOSE

FEATURES

Contact :  Dr.VSRS  

GO TO HOME PAGE

 A.  ASSISTANCE
 B BOOKS
 F.   
 H.  HELP (FAQ)
  L.    LATEST SITE
  S.  SITE MAP

ON THE WEB FROM AUGUST 01, 2001

LAST UPDATE

RESEARCH &
DEVELOPMENT
CENTRE
RePEc  SSRN

07

 01.FACULTYSHIPS
      ASSOCIATION
      COLLEGE
      CORPORATE
      GOVERNMENT
      INSTITUTIONS
      PRECAUTIONS
      SCHOOLS
      SOCIETIES
      UNIVERSITIES    
      VIEWER'S VIEWS
      WISDOM  
 02. INNOVATION
     
A. BIO-CHEMISTRY
      B. ENMALISP
      C. EXAMPLES
      D. MAIN CONCEPTS
      E. MATHEMATICS
      F.  CATALYST
     
G. MUSIC
      H. COLOUR DISC
       I. ORGANIC
      J.  INORGANIC
      K. PHYSICS

      L. STUDIOUS
      M. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 03. MANAGEMENT 
      
A. ARTILECT  
       B
. BE HAPPY
       C.
CONCEPTS
       D. DETAILS
       E. INDIRA GANDHI
       F. NOBEL
       G. POLI-FINANCE
       H. SLIDE SHOW
 
      I. SUMMARY    
      J. SUPPORTS
      K. VIEWER'S VIEWS  
          MANAGEMENT
          PRODUCTIVITY

 04. MOTIVATION
     
A. ARITHMETIC
      B. BESTPEDAL
      C. EPOCH MAKERS
      D. HANDICAPPED
      E. LEADS FOR

          SELF 
          SOCIAL
      F. SELF
MOTIVATION
          EXAMPLES
          DESTRUCTIVE
      G. SOCIAL MOTIVATN
          EXAMPLES
          DESTRUCIVE
  
  H. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 05.   MUSIC 
        
A. ARABIAN
         B. COLOUR CDs
         C. DIATONIC

        
D. EASTERN
        
E. INNOVATION
        
F. RAGAMS
         G. TEMPERED
        
H. VIEWER'S VIEWS
         I.  WESTERN
    -------------------------- 
 
05A. HEXOCTAL
        
A. ADMIRATION
         B. ARABIC
         C. CODE SET
         D. DIATONIC
         E. ENGLISH
         F. GERMAN
         G. HINDI
         H. KARNATAK
         I . KARNATAK KB
        J. MELODY
        K. PRIMARY RAGAM
        L. PUSHTU
        M. SCOTTISH          
        N.  TEMPERED
        O. URUDU    
    
   P. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 06. NEW-CONCEPTS 
     
A. DEVELOPMENT
      B. PHYSICS
 07. PUBLICATIONS    
     
A. ARTICLES
          ECONOMICS
          PRODUCTIVITY
          MANPOWER
          MATERIALS
          RESOURCE
          R & D
          TRAINING
      B.BOOKS
      C. REPEC
      D. SSRN  
08. QUOTATIONS
       A. WORDS
       B. PICTURES  
           ANIMALS
           BIOLOGY
           BIRDS
           BOTANICAL
           BUILDINGS
           FLOWERS
           FRUITS
           HISTORICAL
           INSTITUTIONS
           LANDSCAPES
           MONUMENTS 
           NATURE
           PLANTS
           TRANSPORT
           TREES
            SPORTS
            STARS 
      
C. VIEWER'S VIEWS 
 09. SMART-THOUGHTS 
      
A. ALEXANDER
       B. ACHIEVEMENT
       C. ECONOMICS
       D. LION
       E. PHILOSOPHY
       F. SCIENCE
       G. TSUMANI
       H. UNIVERSE

       I. VIEWER'S VIEWS
 10. SOCIO-ECONOMIC
       A. ARTILECT        
       B. BUSH

      
C. CONCEPTS
       D DETAILS
       E. INDIRA GANDHI
       F. NOBEL
       G. POLI-FINANCE
       H. SLIDE SHOW
       
I. SUMMARY          
      J. SUPPORTS
      K. VIEWER'S VIEW   
 11. SOFTWARE (SW)
       A. APPLICATION
      
B. ARTILECT 
       C. BOOTING       
    
  D. CORPORATE
       E. DESIGNS
       F. HARDARE
       G. JOB SW
       H. OP.SYSTEM
       I. ORGANISATION SW
      J. SW QUALITY
      K. SW UTILITY
      L. UTILITY SW
      M
. VIEWER'S VIEW      
 12.  STARS & SKY     
      
A. ASTRONOMY
       B. CONSTELLATIONS
           INDIAN
           WESTERN
       C. ENMALISP
       D. GREEK ALFA
       E. MID NORTH
       F. NEAR NORTH
       G. STARS
            INDIAN
            WESTERN 
       H. SUN
       I. VIEWER'S VIEW
      J. ZODIAC
 13. VIEWR'S VIEWS
       ABOUT DRVSRS     
       DEVELOPMENT   
       COUNTRY
       FACULTY
       FEED BACK
       INNOVATION
       MANAGEMENT
       MOTIVATION
       MUSIC
       NAMES
       PRODUCTIVITY
       PROFESSION
       QUOTATIONS
       SOFTWARE
       STARS
       TOPICS 
       VIEWER'S VIEWS
       WEB CLASSES
 14. KEY-WORDS
        FAQ   A TO Z
       ANIMATIONS
       FLAGS
       HAPPY
       JOKES
       MELODIES
       QUOTATIONS
 15. DR.VSRS
       A. ABOUT 
       B. ACADEMIC
       C. ACHIEVEMENT
       D. ASSIGNMENTS
       E. ASSISTANCE
       F. BOOKS
       G. CDB, BARBADOS
       H. CFTC, LONDON
       I. CONTACT          
      J.  FAMILY TREE
       K.  HOME  
       L. INNOVATIONS
       M. ISO 90001:2000
       N. NOBEL 
       O. PRIME PAPERS
       P. QUALITYAUDITOR
       Q. SITE MAP
       R SOCIAL WORK
       S. VIEWER'S VIEWS
       T. WORLD TRAVEL       
16.  CLOSE

FEATURES

Contact :  Dr.VSRS  

GO TO HOME PAGE

 A.  ASSISTANCE
 B BOOKS
 F.   
 H.  HELP (FAQ)
  L.    LATEST SITE
  S.  SITE MAP

ON THE WEB FROM AUGUST 01, 2001

LAST UPDATE

RESEARCH &
DEVELOPMENT
CENTRE
RePEc  SSRN

08

 01.FACULTYSHIPS
      ASSOCIATION
      COLLEGE
      CORPORATE
      GOVERNMENT
      INSTITUTIONS
      PRECAUTIONS
      SCHOOLS
      SOCIETIES
      UNIVERSITIES    
      VIEWER'S VIEWS
      WISDOM  
 02. INNOVATION
     
A. BIO-CHEMISTRY
      B. ENMALISP
      C. EXAMPLES
      D. MAIN CONCEPTS
      E. MATHEMATICS
      F.  CATALYST
     
G. MUSIC
      H. COLOUR DISC
       I. ORGANIC
      J.  INORGANIC
      K. PHYSICS

      L. STUDIOUS
      M. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 03. MANAGEMENT 
      
A. ARTILECT  
       B
. BE HAPPY
       C.
CONCEPTS
       D. DETAILS
       E. INDIRA GANDHI
       F. NOBEL
       G. POLI-FINANCE
       H. SLIDE SHOW
 
      I. SUMMARY    
      J. SUPPORTS
      K. VIEWER'S VIEWS  
          MANAGEMENT
          PRODUCTIVITY

 04. MOTIVATION
     
A. ARITHMETIC
      B. BESTPEDAL
      C. EPOCH MAKERS
      D. HANDICAPPED
      E. LEADS FOR

          SELF 
          SOCIAL
      F. SELF
MOTIVATION
          EXAMPLES
          DESTRUCTIVE
      G. SOCIAL MOTIVATN
          EXAMPLES
          DESTRUCIVE
  
  H. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 05.   MUSIC 
        
A. ARABIAN
         B. COLOUR CDs
         C. DIATONIC

        
D. EASTERN
        
E. INNOVATION
        
F. RAGAMS
         G. TEMPERED
        
H. VIEWER'S VIEWS
         I.  WESTERN
    -------------------------- 
 
05A. HEXOCTAL
        
A. ADMIRATION
         B. ARABIC
         C. CODE SET
         D. DIATONIC
         E. ENGLISH
         F. GERMAN
         G. HINDI
         H. KARNATAK
         I . KARNATAK KB
        J. MELODY
        K. PRIMARY RAGAM
        L. PUSHTU
        M. SCOTTISH          
        N.  TEMPERED
        O. URUDU    
    
   P. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 06. NEW-CONCEPTS 
     
A. DEVELOPMENT
      B. PHYSICS
 07. PUBLICATIONS    
     
A. ARTICLES
          ECONOMICS
          PRODUCTIVITY
          MANPOWER
          MATERIALS
          RESOURCE
          R & D
          TRAINING
      B.BOOKS
      C. REPEC
      D. SSRN  
08. QUOTATIONS
       A. WORDS
       B. PICTURES  
           ANIMALS
           BIOLOGY
           BIRDS
           BOTANICAL
           BUILDINGS
           FLOWERS
           FRUITS
           HISTORICAL
           INSTITUTIONS
           LANDSCAPES
           MONUMENTS 
           NATURE
           PLANTS
           TRANSPORT
           TREES
            SPORTS
            STARS 
      
C. VIEWER'S VIEWS 
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01. Bright Star The significantly big  and Bright Star in a Constellation
02. Double Star 2 Stars in close distance
03. Dwarf Stars (White) Very Small Stars in White Colour
04. Galaxy Collection of many stars
05. Meteors Solid objects in the universe
06. Milky Way Band of Light like a belt, with many million stars
07. Nebula Cloud of Gas and Dust in the Universe
08. Planetary Nebula Nebula thought as a Star with Planet, expands and Emits intensive glow
09. Star Cluster Large number of Stars bound by Gravitation
10. Variable Star A Star Changing  the Brightness noticeably
A Constellation is a group of two are more stars keeping their formation together for centuries. NUMBERING   (TOP)
Latitude : Imaginary lines drawn on Earth from East to West.
Northern Hemisphere
: Portion of the earth  between the Equator (0) and North Pole (90N).
Southern Hemisphere
: Portion of the earth  between the Equator (0) and South Pole (90S). Stars and Constellations are located,  only by the Degrees latitude, because all of them daily rise in the East and set in the west. Hence, They do not have any fixed location in the East-West
direction.
(a) Greek Letters are attached to Stars by German Celestial Cartographer Johann Bayer in 1603 (b) Stars are given a Number by the First English Astronomer Royal John Flamsteed (1646 to 1719)  (c) Double Stars are Categorised by the Russian Astronomer FGW.Struve (d) Variable Stars are given a Number with Letter V (e) Galaxies, Nebulae and Star Clusters have - M numbers from a Catalogue  Compiled in 18th Century by the French Astronomer Charles Messier and/or  - NGC Number (New General Catalogue of Nebulae and Cluster of Stars published in 1888 by Danish Astronomer JLE.Dreyer).

Go To : Andromeda (Devayani) Bootes (Boothapam) Camilooardalis (KharabhamCanes Venatici (Shyama ChabalamCassiopeia (Sharmishtam)  Coathanger  Corona Borealis (Uthara Mukutam) Cygnus (Hamsam) Herculus (Shauri) Lacerta (Saratham) Lyra (Swara Mandalam) Ursa Major (Saptha Rishi / Arundhathi) Vulpeula (Jhambikam)

Sun never goes beyond 23 degrees Latitude in the North. So, these Mid north Stars, which are beyond that range, are visible  all through the years, in the night.  Also, in this  area, sun rises from the South, during April to June, and sets by going back to South during July to September.  From October to March, the area is almost dark. Hence the Stars are visible  in this area, almost during day time and night.
=================================================================================

201. KHARABHAM / 21. CAMELOPARDALIS
Western and Indian representations. Location of View : Northern Sky - Closer to North pole }
{ Star sizes are of relative magnitude & Not to Scale. Constellation's Primary Stars are shown }

Over head location : 50 Degree North and 80 Degree North ( Latitude ).
                                 Just North of Aries / Taurus and Perseus.
Visible From  Equator & Northern Hemisphere :
            Mid May           : In the Western Sky just after Sunset.  
               Mid June           : Over the head at Sunset. 
               Mid September : Rising in the Eastern sky at Sunset. 
               
December           : Rising in  the Eastern sky just before the Sun rise. 
 
Visible
in 40 to 60 Degree North :
            Mid April to Mid July                     : The day-time    will start increasing.                   
               Mid July  to Mid September          : The day-time    will start reducing. 
               Mid September to Mid December : The night-time will start increasing. 
               
Mid December to Mid April           : 
The night-time will start reducing.
Stars           :  
All Stars are identified by the Greek alphabets.              
Formation : 
Source : <http://camelphotos.com/tales_ash.html>
Mongolian Folktales
A great many years ago, Budhdha began to assign an animal to each of the years of the year of the twelve year cycle Mongolian calendar (12 Year cycle like the 60 years cycle of the Hindu calendar). When he had finished assigning eleven animals, the Buddha paused to consider which animal should be selected to complete the 12 year cycle. On hearing this, the Camel and the Mouse, neither of whom had been selected, rushed to see Buddha. Bowing respectfully before The Great Sage, each presented himself as a worthy candidate. The Buddha listened in silence as each animal argued his case. When the elaborate pleas came to an end, the Wise Buddha, not wishing to offend either of the eager and equally deserving animals,  quietly told the Camel and the Mouse that they would have to resolve the matter themselves in a friendly and honest way. The big Camel and the tiny Mouse, after much discussions and debates, finally agreed that they would settle the issue with a contest. The first to see the light of the new morning sun, the very next day would be the winner, and the winner would enter the twelve-year Mongolian calendar for all times. That night, in the darkness, in the middle of a wide, open plain, the Camel took up a position facing East. The Mouse, who had asked the Camel if he could sit on his hump, fixed his eyes on a faraway, snow-covered mountains in the West. Eyes propped wide open, the two anxious contestants settled down to wait for the critical moment. At dawn, when the great fiery ball (Sun) began it's slow ascent, but before the rise, one thin early ray glanced off the snowy western mountain top. The Mouse squealed out "There it is! I see the sun! I win!"  "What?" cried the Camel, who knew that the sun rose in the East. "Why, you little sneak! You've cheated! You'll pay for this!" As the terrified Mouse came down from the Camel's hump to seek safety in the nearby pile of ashes, and the Camel charged after him. He threw his heavy body on the ground, and rolled back and forth on the ash pile, hoping to crush the Mouse with his weight. The Camel didn't squash the Mouse at that time, but he was certain that one day he will. Whenever he sees a pile of ashes, he thinks the Mouse must be hiding inside. He snorts, stamps his feet, then lies down and rolls around and around, trying to flatten his tricky little mouse. So it happened that the little Mouse entered the twelve-year Mongolian calendar, while the big Camel was excluded. Feeling sorry for the Camel, the Wise Buddha told him gently that he would never be forgotten. No, in fact the Camel would be represented in all the 12 years of the Mongolian Calendar by possessing one feature  each of the twelve different animals. If you look carefully at the Camel, you will see that the Buddha has kept his word, because the Camel has (1) The ears of the Mouse (2) The stomach of the Ox (3) The paws of the Tiger (4) The nose of the Rabbit (5) The body of the Dragon (6) The eyes of the Snake (7) The mane of the Horse (8) The wool of the Sheep (9) The hump of the Ape (Monkey) (10)  The head crest of the Rooster (11) The crooked back legs of the Dog (12) The tail of the Pig. This made the camel very happy. Also Budhdah  allotted a place for camel  on the sky, as camel has the characteristics of all the 12 animals of the Mangolian yearly cycle. It is Camelopardalis.
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The Arabians identified it as the  Giraffe. This is a large constellation in the Northern polar region of the sky.   But it is inconspicuous ( Not easily noticeable ). There are no Greek,  Arabic or Indian mythology about this constellation. All identified it as an animal Giraffe or Camel.
Camelopardalis constellation lies in the northern hemisphere. Its name comes from the Latin derivation of the Greek word for “giraffe.” The constellation was created by the Dutch astronomer Petrus Plancius and documented by the German astronomer Jakob Bartsch in 1624. Taken apart, the word camelopardalis means camel (Greek kamēlos) and leopard (pardalis). The giraffe was called the “camel-leopard” because it had a long neck like a camel and a body with spots, like a leopard. It contains Kemble’s Cascade, an asterism (crystal like structure) formed by a cascade of relatively faint stars, and several notable deep sky objects : the open cluster NGC 1502, the spiral galaxy NGC 2403, and the dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 1569.

Bright Stars   : There are no bright stars in this constellation.
Double Stars :
) Beata Camelopardalis is a yellow super giant with a relatively small
                         companion.      
Star clusters : NGC 1502 is a small cluster with about 15 stars, with a double star in the
                        centre.
Galaxy          :  NGC 2403 is a small Spiral galaxy.

         

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202. SAPTHA RISHI MANDALAM / 84. URSA MAJOR 
Western and Indian representations. Location of View : Northern Sky - Closer to North pole }
{ Star sizes are of relative magnitude & Not to Scale. Constellation's Primary Stars are shown }

     Over head location : 30 Degree North to 70 Degree North ( Latitude ). Just North of Leo.
     Visible From  Equator & Northern Hemisphere : Throught the Year.  It goes around the pole in counter
       clock wise direction around the Pole star (Dhruva), like a Star Clock.
     Stars  :  
All Stars are identified by the Greek alphabets, Greek Names and Indian names
  
Formation :
 
  Greeks conceived the formation as a Big Bear
and as a Plough. It was  catalogued by the Greek astronomer Ptolemy in the 2nd century. Greeks associated the constellation with the myth of  Zeus and Callisto, a beautiful nymph (minor beautiful spirit).  Zeus changed Callisto into a bear and made her the largest constellation in the sky as Big Dipper.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Indian mythology relates it to the 7 Celestial Hermits or Rishis with extra ordinary powers by reciting the Vedhic hymns, performing Penance and offering materials through the medium of fire.
Over 15,000 years ago, Aadiyogi (Ancient Cosmic person, named as Shiva) appeared in the upper regions of the Himalayas in India. No one knew where he came from or what his origins were. He just came and went into intense ecstatic (thrilling) dance upon the mountains. People saw that he was experiencing something that nobody had known before, something that they were unable to understand. So they gathered around him wanting to know what it was. But no one had the courage to go near him, because he was so intense, like a blazing flame of fire. So they waited, hoping something would happen. Only 9 courageous seekers (Nava Maha Rishis) approached him. These Nine insistent that they must learn from him, but Shiva ignored them. They pleaded and begged him, “Please, we want to know what you know.” At last after 84 years of intense penance, he decided to become a Guru (Teacher) for them. On a full moon day which is known as Guru Pournami, the Aadiyogi transformed himself into the Aadi Guru (Primary teacher) and the first Guru was manifested on that day. He took the seven disciples to Kantisarovar (a place in Himalayas) and started a systematic exposition of yoga in a scientific manner. He began propounding the whole mechanics of life to these 9 people, not intellectually as a philosophy, but practically. He explored every basic concepts of creation with them. He brought forth yoga as a technology with which every human being can practice himself. This knowledge transmission went on for a long period of time. After many years, when it was complete and had produced 9 fully enlightened beings, who were  celebrated as the Nava Maha  Rishis (enlightened people through mind and body controls).  Adiyogi sent each one of them to different parts of the world. They formatted different sets of DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid cells), with specific characters, habits, practices, intelligence, way of life, get life, grow,  multiply, and  generate their known in Pedigree in the world. In Sanskrit this is known as "Gothram". One went to Central Asia. Another went to North Africa and the Middle East (Mahaa Mathi or Person with Brilliant Knowledge, synonymous with Mohammadhi), where these schools of thought exist even today. Another went to South America, and that is one culture that imbibed it in a deep way and made something big out of it. One went to East Asia. Another one came to the lower regions of the Himalayas and started what is known as Kashmiri Shaivism. Another one went south into the Indian Peninsula. This one is very important for us  and he is Agastya Muni. He became the Star “Canopus (Agasthya)” in the southern constellation Carina (Naukathalam). Agastya Muni has been the most effective in terms of bringing the spiritual process into practical life, not as a teaching or philosophy but as a practice. It is the benefit of what he did that the Indian people are still enjoying, because he produced hundreds of yogis (Spiritual people) who possessed many extraordinary  powers. 7 out of 9 attained bright Star forms and stayed above the Mount Kailash (31.0675 degree North latitude and 81.3119 East longitude. Elevation 6,638 meters). They are the heavenly Saptha Rishis.
Bright Stars     
:
α (Alfa)   - Dubhe (Krathu), β (Beta) - Merok (Pulaha), ϒ (Gamma) -Phecdo (Pulasya),
                          
δ (Delta) - Megrez (Athri), 
ε (Epsilon) - Alioth (Augritha), η (Eta)  - Alkaid (Marichi)
Double stars     :
ξ (Xi) is  a double star that orbit each other.
Multiple  stars :
ζ (Zeta) -Mizor (Vashishta) and 80 Alcor (Arundhathi) are star pairs, for millions of years. 
In Hindu Vedhic marriages, on the night of the marriage day, the married couple has to see this star pairs.  It is to induct them to be together for life. In Rig Vedhic hymns (7.33.9) Vashishta was is described as a scholar who crossed the Indus river to establish his Vedhic school. (River Indus originates in the western part of Tibet, near Mount Kailash, and flows southward for 3,180 km or 1,980 Miles, to join the Arabian sea) .
Galaxies : M81(NGC3031) and its partner M82 (NGC30340), are  beautiful spiral galaxies.  M101(NGC5457)  is another spiral galaxy in this constellation. There are also a number of other galaxies in this constellation.
Pole Star Pointer :  Joining the the stars Merok (
Pulaha) and Dubeh (Krathu) by a straight line and extending the same,  will lead to the Pole Star in Ursa Minor. It is used by the Air Pilots and Ship Captains (in Northern hemisphere) in the night, to find the exact Geographic north.
Star Geometry : Join Merok (Pulaha) and Dubhe (Krathu) and extend this line to reach the Pole Star (Dhruva). This constellation rotates around the North pole, in synchronisation with the Ursa Minor (Dhruva Masyam), in an outer circle,   like the hour hand of a clock, to indicate the time.
Meteor Shower : (1) A large number of Meteor (Solid bodies spatter around like a rain shower with splashes) in Ursa Major (UM), around  August 9th to 30th every year (Peak in 13th and 14th of August). The rate is 4 meteors per hour (2) In
κ - Kappa UM, Meteors shower from November 2nd to 9th (Peak on 5th)  at 1 meteor per hour (3) More meteor showers are seen between December 17th to 24th (Peak on 23rd) up to 10 meteors per hour.

 
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 203. SHYAMA CHABHALAM / 22. CANES VENATICI
Western and Indian representations. Location of View : Northern Sky - Closer to North pole }
{ Star sizes are of relative magnitude & Not to Scale. Constellation's Primary Stars are shown }

         Over head location : 30 Degree North to 50 Degree North ( Latitude ). Just North of Leo.
          Visible From  Equator & Northern Hemisphere : All through the Year
          Stars  :  
All Stars are identified by the Greek alphabets, Greek Names
         
Bright Stars :
(
α - Alpha) Cor Caroli,  (β - Beta) Chara (Asterion), ϒ (Gamma) La Superba
          Formation :  Greeks identified it as the 2 dogs of Bootes (Bhoothapam), the herds man on the 
                                     sky. Names of the dogs are Cor Caroli and Chara, the bright stars.  

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I
ndian (Hindu) Mythology
The constellation is named as Shyama Chabalam. Shyama in Sanskrit means “Blue coloured” and denotes Lord Krishna, the blue coloured heavenly baby. Chabala is a “Dearly Wish”. Hence, this constellation is formed out of Krishna’s dearly wish. Lord Krishna (reincarnation of Lord Vishnu), was born in the Earth to Devaki and her husband, Vasudheva, on 27 July 3112 BCE. . Devaki’s brother was a prince named Kamsa. He was actually an Asura (Devil) by birth. During his sister Devaki's wedding ceremony, a divine prophecy (loud voice from the sky) said that the 8th son of  sister Devaki would kill him. Krishna was the 8th son. Hence, Vasudeva secretly carried the infant and exchanged Krishna with Nandagopan’s daughter.  Nandagopan was a herd’s man keeping Cows and producing milk products. His wife was Yashodha, and both belonged to the Yadhava community. Krishna lived with Yashodha, as his mother. Krishna was naughty and playful. Yashoda lost her motherly patience after a very naughty act by Krishna. She tied him up in a heavy grinding stone in the courtyard. Krishna appealed for mercy with fear and tears in his eyes. Unable to bear the sight, Yashoda went inside to attend to her domestic works. Left alone, Krishna happily and effortlessly dragged the grindstone and passed through a gap between two large trees, in the backyard. The grindstone got stuck in between. With one Godly force, Krishna brought down the trees. The trees transformed into two Gandharvas (Heavenly angels Nalakooparan and Manikreevan), who are the sons of Kubera (a richest person on the Universe). They were cursed by Narada (Godly messenger) to become twin trees. The gandharvas, having been released from the curse, thanked Krishna and prayed to give them a heavenly abode.   With the Shyam’s wish,  they were given a twin star position, near the 7 holy sages (Saptha Rishis / Ursa Major) and  under the control of the heavenly herdsman (Boothpam / Bootes). 
            
Double Stars :  (
α - Alpha) Cor Caroli (Charle's Heart - Charles II of England). A blue-white
                                       star.
(Nalakooparan and Manikreevan)
          Global Clusters :  M3 (NGC5272) A softly glowing ball of light globular cluster.
          Galaxies :  M51 (NGC5194) is a Whirlpool galaxy, with a satellite galaxy NGC5195. 
                           M94 (NGC4736) is a spiral galaxy.  M63 (NGC5055) is a Sun Flower galaxy.
                           NGC4631 is a barred spiral galaxy. M106 (NGC4258) is a Sun Flower Galaxy.

                    
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204. BHOOTHAPAM / 19. BOOTES 
       Western and Indian representations. Location of View : Northern Sky - Midway to  North pole
      { Star sizes are of relative magnitude & Not to Scale. Constellation's Primary Stars are shown }
                
        Over d location
:
20 Degree North to 50 Degree North ( Latitude ). Just North of Virgo.
        Formation : Herdsman
        Bright Stars  : Arcturus (
α - Alfa) is a red giant
        Double Stars :
Izar (ε - Epsilon) is a glorious is a double star with contrasting orange
                               colours. Alkalurops (
- Mu) is a blue-white star with a small companion.
                               ξ - Xi is a beautiful duo with yellow and orange stars
        Meteors : The Quadrantids, the most abundant shower (100 per hour) is seen on 3rd and
                       4th January, each year. (This is from the stars Quadrans Muralis that was in
                       this area, once)
 Formation :  Arcturus is the controlling star of the Bootes constellation.
 Australian Mythology
In Australia, the Wotjobaluk Koori aborigines (historically ancient community) called Arcturus as “Marpean-kurrk”, the   mother of Djuit (Antares), and Weet-kurrk (Muphrid). The arrival of Arcturus in the north coincided with the arrival of wood-ant larvae, which formed a part of the diet of the Aborigines in south-eastern Australia. Arcturus also marked the beginning of summer when it set in the west with the Sun, which event also marked the disappearance of the wood-ant larvae.
Chinese Mythology
In ancient China, Arcturus was known as Dajiao (great horn), since it marks the horn on the head of  the Blue Dragon. It was also said to symbolize the throne of the celestial king, Tian wang, who was visualized as holding a court in this area.  This star’s status comes about not just because it is the  brightest in the northern half of the sky, but also because it lies in the first lunar mansion, Jiao, where the full Moon appeared each spring, marking the start of the year. Additionally, it is in line with the  handle of the Big Dipper (Ursa Major) or Beidou in Chinese, which was used as a seasonal clock-hand in the sky. Hence Arcturus/Dajiao became associated with the annual cycle of the seasons, a powerful symbol of cosmic harmony.
Greek Mythology
Botes is taken to represent Icarius, a grape grower who once invited Dionysus (God of Grape harvest) to visit his vineyards. The god was so impressed that he gave Icarius, the secret of making wine. Icarius followed the recipe and enjoyed the beverage so much that he invited all his friends to try it. They, however, enjoyed it a bit too much and, when they woke up the next day with bad hangovers, they assumed Icarius had tried to poison them. Angry, they decided to murder him in his sleep. Dionysus was saddened by the death of his friend and decided to place Icarius among the stars, as Arcturus. The ancient Greeks saw Arcturus in Bootes as the guardian of both Ursa Major and Ursa Minor, while in ancient Rome it was seen as the harbinger of stormy, if not tempestuous weather. Arcturus is one of only a few stars mentioned in the Bible, and by the Middle Ages it was assigned magical properties and lumped together with fourteen other stars which were collectively known as “Behenian fixed stars”, considered especially useful in medieval astrology. Greeks identified it as a Herdsman, controlling the Great bear (Ursa Major) and the 2 dogs in Canes Venatici.
Indian mythology
I
n Vedic cosmology (study of the universe), Aryaman (Arcturus)  of northern sky and Sun (Soorya) of the zodiac sky,  are both sons of the Divine Mother Aditi. Aryaman is given a Godly status in Rig Vedham (first ancient Hindu hymns created around 1,700 to 1,100 BCE, by the ancient sages or Rishis), even though he has a remote northern location, far outside of the zodiac signs in the Equatorial sky, completes the series of Hindu asterisms (Star clusters).  In the Universally powerful start of Gayathri Hymn (Manthram - Om Bhur Bhuva Suvaha),  Aryaman concentrated on the syllable Bhur or Bhoo,  and meditated (Thapam in Sanskrit) for the welfare of the Earthly part of the universe, with both his hands folded up wards above the head.  Hence, Aryaman got the name Boothapam for the constellation.
Star Geometry : (A) If the tail curve of Ursa Major (Saptha Rishi) is extended geometrically, it will lead to Arcturus (Aryaman). (B) The three stars Arcturus (Aryaman) in Bootes (Boothapam), Regulus (Magham) in Leo (Simham), and  Spica(Chithra) in Virgo (Kanya) form a bright celestial Triangle. 

                   
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                  205. UTHARA MUKUTAM / 35. CORONA BOREALIS
                   Western and Indian representations. Location of View : Northern Sky - Midway to  North pole
                 { Star sizes are of relative magnitude & Not to Scale. Constellation's Primary Stars are shown }
                
        Over head  location
:
24 Degree North to 40 Degree North ( Latitude ).
        Formation : Northern Crown (
Uthara Muutam). Cresent shaped.

Mythology :
1) Arabs know the constellation as “the poor people’s bowl” or Alphecca, which means “broken up.” The name  Alphecca was later given to the constellation’s brightest star, Alpha Coronae Borealis.
2) Australians  : Corona Borealis is known as Woomera, or the Boomerang (A weapon when thrown towards an  object,  hits and comes back), and the characteristics are associate with the castle of Lady Arianrhod, a  pre  Christian or Celtic goddess of beauty,  who gave birth to two sons through magical means.
3) 
Buddhism identifies the jewel stars in the sky in a philosophical angle. Mahayana is one of two great schools of Buddhist doctrine, emphasizing a common search for universal salvation, especially through   faith alone.  The dominant religion of  this sect are in China, Japan and Tibet. The Avataṃsaka Soothra in Sanskrit, or the Mahāvaipulya Buddhāvataṃsaka Soothra
(a group of aphoristic doctrinal summaries prepared for memorization), is one of the most influential Mahayana soothras of East Asian Buddhism. The title is rendered in English as Flower Garland Soothra, Flower Adornment Soothra, or Flower Ornament Scripture (writing that is  regarded as sacred by a religious group). The Avataṃsaka Soothra describes a cosmos as infinite domains (territory) upon domains, mutually containing links of each, on another. The vision expressed in this work was the foundation for the creation of the Huayan (a sector) school of Chinese Buddhism, which was characterized by a philosophy of  inter-penetration. The Huayan school is known as Hwaeom  in Korea and Kegon in Japan. These  explain about the Indira’s (Head of immortal Devas in heaven, doing good, faithful and an ethical group) Jeweled  Net. This is attributed to an ancient Buddhist named Tu-Shun (557-640 BCE) who envisioned (imagination)  a vast  net of Jewels with the characteristics (1) At each juncture there lies a jewel (2) Each jewel reflects all the other  jewels in this cosmic matrix (3) Every jewel represents an individual life form, atom, cell or unit of consciousness (4) Each jewel, in turn, is intrinsically and intimately connected to all the others in the net. 
(5) Thus, any change in  one gem is reflected in all the others. This last aspect of the jeweled net is explored in a question/answer dialog of  teacher and student in the Avatamsaka Soothra. In the answer to the question : "How can all these jewels be considered as one jewel ?" It is replied as : "If you don't believe that one jewel represents  all the jewels, just put  a dot on one jewel [in question]. When one jewel is dotted, there are dots on all the jewels. Since there are dots on  all the jewels, then we will know that all the jewels are one jewel". The moral of Indra's net is that the  compassionate (deep awareness) and the constructive (emphasizing) interventions of a person, who produces (A) A ripple (wave) effect of the resulting beneficial action (B) That wave will reverberate throughout the universe until it’s intensity  fades out.  (c) By on the same token, you cannot damage one strand of the web, without damaging the others or setting off a cascade (wave) effect of destruction. A good explanation of the Hindu/Buddhist myth of Indra's net can be found in The Tao (ultimate principle) of Physics, by Fritj of Capra (a Buddhist philosopher) : (1) Particles are dynamically composed of one another in a self-consistent (compartment) way (2) In that sense, it can be said to 'contain' one another. In Mahayana Buddhism, a very similar notion is applied to the whole universe (3) This cosmic network of inter-penetrating things is illustrated in the Avatamsaka Soothra, by the metaphor (similarity) of Indra's net, a vast network of precious gems hanging over the palace of the Deva’s Head or Indra. This philosophy summarises : (A) The Holographic (multi dimensional) Nature of the Universe, with inter links  (B) The Interconnection between  all matters and energies in the universe (C) Lack of a substantive self, or all characters of the net is present in each  (D) Non-locality of origin, for every action or the effects of any action is universal (E) Innate Wisdom or life and its continuity is universe (F) Illusion or Maya or the universe is an illusion of a network of many, but all linked together (G) Universal Creativity or intelligence and inventions are the  wholeness of all in a network. It cannot be the domain of any individual component (H). The Mirror-like Nature of   Mind or the thinking faculty in any matter, reflects and redefines the whole matter in different forms, as applicable  to a given time in space. Corona Borealis (Uthara Mukutam) is a part of Indra's Jewel Network. (Source :
http://awakeningtoreality.blogspot.in/2009/04/net-of-indra.html)
4) Celtic (pre Christian people) mythology, designated Corona Borealis as Caer Arianrhod, or the Castle of         Arianrhod, the place where the mythical Lady Arianrhod lived.
5)
Chinese astronomers seen Corona Borealis as an arc or loop. Hence it is relatively easy to pick out this on          Chinese star charts. Chinese astronomers charted nine stars in the loop, from Pi to Rho, which they         called Guansuo, the prison for working-class miscreants (immortals), the prison for the upper classes.
6)
Greek mythology, related Corona Borealis  with the myth of Princess Ariadne (Beautiful daughter of Minos and Pasiphae) of Crete (The largest Greek island in the Mediterranean site of the Minoan civilization that
reached its peak in 1600 BC). 
She helped the Greek hero Theseus to defeat the Minotaur, the creature with a Human body and head of a Bull that lived in a labyrinth (web or net), designed by Daedalus (an Athanian inventor). In the myth, Ariadne married the God Dionysus. The semi circle of stars in the constellation Corona Borealis  represents the crown made by the god Hephaestus. Ariadne wore this crown on her wedding day. The jewels (diamonds) are supposed to be from India.
Bright Stars  : Gemma (α - Alfa) is the Jewel of the crown. In Arabic it is called Al Nair and Al      Fakkah. In Indian system it is called Mukuta Mani (Jewel of the Crown)
Variable Stars : R star changes the brightness over a period of years, because of the Carbon particles on   the outer layer. T star is known as ablaze star, ejects clouds and becomes more bright at times. Between 1886 and 1946, it was more bright. Further activity is not predictable.
δ star is a  variable in brightness
Double stars   :
β (Beta) star (Nusakan) is a spectrocopic binary is chemically
ppeculiar with strong magnetic  fields.  γ (Gamma) star is double with varying luminacity. σ (Sigma  Surve 2032) star is a slowly changing  binary.
η (Eta) star (Surve 1937) is a double star. ν (Nu) star is optically binary. ζ (Zeta) star is a pair of blue stars. v2 is an orange pair.
Others :
ρ (Rho) star is an yellow dwarf (small) star. κ (Kappa) star is an orange sub giant.
Galaxy cluster : Abel 2065 is a densely populated cluster, at about a degree South West of β (Beta) star. It is  estimated to have over 400 galaxies.

 

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206. SHAURI / 47. HERCULES
Western and Indian representations. Location of View : Northern Sky - Midway to  North pole
                 { Star sizes are of relative magnitude & Not to Scale. Constellation's Primary Stars are shown }
                
        Over head  location
:
10 Degree North to 50 Degree North ( Latitude ).

CONFIGURATION : Hercules is the fifth largest constellation in the sky, but has no first magnitude stars. Hercules constellation was first catalogued by the Greek astronomer Ptolemy in the 2nd century.
ROMAN MYTHOLOGY : In traditional depictions, the star Ras Algethi (Alpha Herculis) represents Hercules’ head and a prominent asterism (in astronomy), the Keystone, marks his torso (head & limbs), as he stands victoriously on Draco’s head. In mythology, the constellation Hercules is usually associated with the penultimate (one before last) labour of Heracles, which involved in killing the dragon Ladon, who guarded the garden of the Hesperides. The dragon is represented by the 
constellation Draco
.
INDIAN MYTHOLOGY :
 Seeing the relevance of this story of Hercules with Indian culture, it correlates with the story of Krishna. All the labors of Hercules are reflected in the story  of Krishna  with modifications. The story of Hercules was  modified to Indian condition and all additions and deletions had been made to make it suitable to Indian environment. First of all both are represented in black colour.  There is something specific about black colour given to gods. It looks like that the black colour indicated old gods of dark coloured people, and fair colour represented the lighter colour of later day Aryans. The similarity  between the two are, they did many wonders, physical achievements by Hercules and cunning calculated planning of Krishna in Mahabharata Story. In this aspect of cunning planning of Krishna resembles more of Ulysses than Hercules. Hercules is more of brutal force than sophisticated plans. The story of Hydra (of Greece) and the snake Kalingarayan (of India), are the same. Hercules didn't not kill hydra , he merely placed a huge stone over his head. Similarly Krishna also did not kill Kalingarayan the snake. Krishna danced over the head and directed him to move away from Brindavan, in the Yamuna river and warned him not to disturb the common people.  In Sanskrit, Shauri means Lord Vishnu (Krishna) and represents Courage and Valour. 

Variable Stars : α (Alpha) Hercules (Ras Alegethi) is a red super giant with varying brightness.
Double stars     : σ  (Rho) Hercules is a blue-white star. κ (Kappa) Herculus is a yellow giat.
Global Clusters : M13 (NGC6205) contains about 300,000 stars, with sparkling stat dust. M92 (NGC6341)
                                   is a fainter cluster, condensed at the center.
Planetory Nebula : NGC6210 is an odd Planetory Nebula located in Hercules. Multiple shells of materials
                                       are ejected and it is considered as a dying star.

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 207. SWARA MANDALAM / 57. LYRA  
Western and Indian representations. Location of View : Northern Sky - Midway to  North pole
                 { Star sizes are of relative magnitude & Not to Scale. Constellation's Primary Stars are shown }
                
        Over head  location
:
30 Degree North to 40 Degree North ( Latitude ).
Visibility : Northern hemisphere -  April to December.
                      Souther hemisphere   -  December to February

GREEK MYTHOLOGY
It represents Harp or Lyre, a stringed musical instrument.  It is the harp of Orpheus (Greek poet and musician), in the neighbouring constellation Cygnus.  This is one of the 48 constellations listed by Ptolemy (2nd century astronomer).
Apollo, the Greek God gave Orpheus's son the lyre as a gift, and Orpheus played it so well that even the wild beasts, the rocks, and the trees were charmed by his music. He fell deeply in love with the nymph (beautiful mythological spirit) Eurydice, and the two were married. Their wedded bliss did not last for very long, however Eurydice was wandering in the fields with some other nymphs when she was seen by the shepherd Aristaeus. Aristaeus was struck by her beauty and pursued her; as she fled, she was bitten by a snake in the grass and died of the serpent's poison. Orpheus was devastated. He decided to seek out his wife in the underworld, and gained an audience with Pluto and Persephone. The king and queen of the underworld, like all others, were charmed by his music and granted him permission to take Eurydice back to the land of the living with him.
INDIAN MYTHOLOGY
The universe is made of a constant quantum of either Energy or Matter. At one point of time, the universe is only Energy (E) and at a diametrically opposite time, it is only Mass (M). The conversion process from E to M and back, is divided into 4 Yugams of  total 4,320,000 Earthern years  (4.32 X 106 Earthern years).  According to Srimath Baghavatham 3.11.19 (dated around 1400 to 1500 BCE),
(1)   Kritha or Satya yugam of  1,728,000 Earthern years (Age of Truth and Perfection).
(2)   Thretha yugam of  1,296,000 Earthern years (Age of likes and dislikes). 
(3)   Dwapara yugam of  864,000 Earthern years (Age of  discontentment and diseases). 
(4)   Kali yugam of  432,000 Earthern years (Age of  darkness and ignorance).
Age of our Earth is 4,600,000,000  (4.60 X 109) Earthern years. Time lapsed from the Big Bang is 13,799,000,000 (1.38 X 1010 ) Earthern years.  Now, the earth and all its contents are in the 4th or Kaliyugam. It is estimated to be started on 18th February 3,102 BCE, just after the end of Maha Bharatha war at Kurukshethra (India), between Pandavas and Kauravas.  Today, Kaliyugam has crossed about 5,120 years, out of a total limit of 432,000 years.
PRAYER : Kali yugam is a period of  growth of injustice, hatred, war and down fall of morality and truth.  If people have to save their soles, prayer to the God is the only way recommended for Kaliyugam.  It is true with Hinduism, Christianity, Muslim and all other religions in Earth. The prayer has to be attractive and appealing to the God. Hence the musical method is recommended. Swaram in Sanskrit means synchronised musical notes, sung in a proper order. National Aviation and Space Administration (NASA) of USA has recorded many noises and synchronised audio waves  from deep space.  According to Hindu mythology, these universal audio waves are centralised and  packed in the Swara Mandalam. 
SAGE NARADHA :  The universal sound reverberation is  compressed in the syllable "OM" (made from sound syllables A, U M).  Sage Naradha is the son of Brahma (creator of all species) and a strong devotee of Lord Vishnu (God to escort all species in the world).
He was one of the eternal and immortal (No death) sage. He had the mastery of the six Angas namely,  Pronunciation, Grammar, Prosody, Terms, Religious rites and Astronomy. All celestial beings worshiped him for his knowledge. He is supposed to be well versed in all that occurred in ancient Yugas (time cycles) and is  conversant with Nyaya (logic) and the truth of moral science. He was a perfect master in re-conciliatory texts and differentiating in applying general principles to particular cases. He could swiftly interpret contraries by references to differences in situation. He was Eloquent, Resolute, Intelligent and Possessor of powerful memory. He knew the science of Morals, Politics and Skilled in drawing inference from evidence, and very proficient in distinguishing inferior things from superior ones. He was competent in judging the correctness and incorrectness of complex syllogistic statements (conclusion from propositions)  consisting of 5 proponents. He was capable of arriving at definite conclusions about religion, wealth, pleasure and salvation. He was a superior singer with mastery of the  musical notes. He continually recites "Narayana", the prime name of Lord Vishnu. He is the creator and controller of Swara Mandalam, in the cosmic space.

 

Bright Star : Alpha (α) Lyra (Vega/ Abhijith) is a brilliant blue-white star. This was the 28th star in Indian Astromomy and Astrology. It is a male star.  (1) Abhijith means victorious. (2) LordKrishna (Vishnu) was born, when the moon was on this star. (3) In Bagavath Githa Chapter10, Verse 21, Lord Krishna tells Arjuna (of the Pandavas), about the auspiciousness of thisstar.  (4) Among the Western scholars, Maxmullar (German) was the first to study the importance given to this star. (5) It was the Pole star (above the North pole) in 12,000 BCE.  (6) It is a Swift star, because, it changes its position in a random way. So, it was dropped from  the  Hindu almanac, and its positin as the 28th star. Also persons with unsteady (ficle minded)  are called Abijith.
Variable and Double stars : β (Beta) Lyra is an eclipsing cream coloured binary star. It changes its brightness every 12 days and 22 hours. δ (Delta) Lyra is a double variable star.
ε (Epsilon) Lyra is quadruple (4) star format.
Planetory Nebula : M57 (NGC6720) is a ring nebula. It appears as an elliptical diac.
Meteors : Between 21 and 22 April,  it showers with 15 meteors per hour.  On 16th June it showers at 8     meteors per hour.

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                                      208. HAMSAM
/ 39. CYGNUS  
                   Western and Indian representations. Location of View : Northern Sky - Midway to  North pole
                 { Star sizes are of relative magnitude & Not to Scale. Constellation's Primary Stars are shown }
                
                 Over head  location
:
30 Degree North to 50 Degree North ( Latitude ).

It is visible in the northen hemisphere during June to December. Best visible in the month of September at 9.00 PM. In the southern hemisphere, it is seen at low north sky in winter months. It is also known as the Northern Cross.
GREK MYTHOLOGY

Cygnus is one if the most familiar constellations in the northern hemisphere. The name is derived from the Greek word for "Swan." The constellation was originally listed by the Greek astronomer Ptolemy in the 2nd century. It is shown as a long-necked bird with its wings spread wide. Cygnus constellation is associated with several myths, most frequently with the Spartan Queen Leda, who gave birth to two sets of twins, the immortal Pollux and Helen (Helen of Troy), and mortal Castor and Clytemnestra, after being seduced by the god Zeus, who had transformed himself into a swan or Cygnus. The immortal children were fathered by the god and the mortal ones by Leda’s worldly husband Tyndareus.  In the story, Phaeton (son of the Sun-God Helios) and Cygnus were racing each other across the sky when they came too close to the Sun. Their chariots burned up and they fell to the Earth. Cygnus came to and, after looking for Phaeton for a while, he discovered his dead friend’s body was trapped at the bottom of the Eridanus River. He was unable to recover the body, so he made a pact with Zeus (Cygnus) : If the god gave him the body of a swan, he would only live as long as a swan usually does. Once transformed, Cygus was able to dive into the river, retrieve Phaeton’s body and give his friend a proper burial. This allowed Phaeton’s soul to travel to the after life stage. Zeus was moved by Cygnus’ sacrifice and placed his image in the sky.

CHINESE MYTHOLOGY  
Magpie bridge
: The seventh day of the seventh month in the Chinese Lunar Calendar (celebrated in the Western Calendar during the month of August) is known as Qi Qiao Jie or Chinese Valentine's Day. As is the custom elsewhere in the world, this is a day devoted to romance. There are many versions of the origins of Chinese Valentine's Day. This is but one of them involving the Goddess of Heaven and her seven daughters. The Chinese associate the constellation of Cygnus, with a myth, the one of the “magpie bridge,” Que Qiao. In the story, the lovers Niu Lang and Zhi Nu are separated by the Goddess of Heaven because, Zhi Nu is a fairy, and is therefore not allowed to be with a mortal man Niu Lang . When the Goddess learns that the two are secretly married, she takes Zhi Nu with her and creates a river in the sky to keep the lovers separated. The river is represented by the Milky Way itself in the legend. Zhi Nu’s husband Niu Lang take their two children to Heaven so that they can all be together, but the Goddess does not agree and keeps the lovers separated. Once a year, the myth goes, all the magpies in the world assemble to help the lovers be together, by forming an enormous bridge over the wide river. The constellation Cygnus represents the magpie bridge in this story. 

HINDU MYTHOLOGY                                                                                                                              
The Hamsa, or the Swan, is often identified with the Supreme Spirit or Ultimate Reality or Brahman (creator) in Hinduism. The flight of the hamsa symbolizes moksha, the release from the cycle of  Samsara (wordly life).  The hamsa is also the vahana (cvarrier) of Goddess Saraswathi - the goddess of knowledge and creative arts, and her husband Brahma – the god with powers of creation, in Hindu scriptures. Lake Manasarovar, in  Himalaya is  the summer abode of the hamsa birds. Poetical images are derived from the flight of the swans to that lake. Paramhamsa : In view of the association of a hamsa with several attributes as indicated above, Hindu Rishis (Sages)  have been given the title of  Paramhamsa, that is, the Supreme Hamsa. It connotes a particular person who has reached a high level of spirituality. For example, Paramahamsa Upanishad calls that a Yogi  (hermit) is a Paramhamsa, who  neither supports and not affected by defamation, nor jealous, not a show off.  He is humble, and is oblivious (unmindful)  to all the human faculties. He is immune to the existence of his body, which he treats as a corpse. He is beyond false pretensions and lives realizing the Brahman (creator). Damayanti  was a character in a love story found in the Vana Parva book of the Mahabharata (Great Indian epic). She was a princess of the Vidharba kingdom.  Hamsa or Swans mediated about her beauty to the king Nala of Nishadha  Kingdom. And she  married the  king Nala.             

At our birth it enters into us, the migratory bird ! like the fire, invisibly present in the  wood, like the oil hidden in the sesame seed, it dwells in the deepest depth of us : to  know that (the bird) is to free oneself  from death. 
Hamsa Upanishad Translated by Jean Verenne - French Indologist - (1926 to 1997)         

Bright Star : α Alpha cygnus (Deneb or Hamsa) is a blue-white super giant.
Variable Star :
χ Chi cygnus is a red giant,  with varying brightness.
Double Stars :  β Beta cygnus (Albirco) is a coloured double star
Planetory Nebla : NGC6826 is a blinking Plantory nebla.
Nebulae : NGC6960 and  NGC6992 is a Veil (heated cloud) nebula
Radio galaxy : Near γ (Gamma) Sadr cygnus, has a strongest Radio source.
Star Clusters : M29 and NGC6811 are open cluster.

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 209. JAMBHIKAM  
/ 88. VULPECULA
Western and Indian representations. Location of View : Northern Sky - Midway to  North pole
                 { Star sizes are of relative magnitude & Not to Scale. Constellation's Primary Stars are shown }
                
       Over head  location
:
20 Degree North to 30 Degree North ( Latitude ).

It is a faint and small constellation in the Northern hemisphere. The constellation  is named as  "the little fox" in Latin. There are no stories or  Greek mythology related to this constellation.

JAPANESE  ANIMAL LITERATURE

Tenko (Japanese: 天狐) are a type of divine foxes in Japanese folk legends. After reaching 1,000 years of age and gaining its ninth tail, a Kitsune  (fox)  turns into a golden colour, becoming a Tenko  (天狐 heavenly fox or a celestial fox), the most powerful form of the Kitsune, and then ascends to the heavens. They are able to see a thousand Ri ahead (approx. 3927km or 2440 miles). They have nine tails unlike the lower-ranked foxes like  Yako,  Kiko, and the Kuko. Tenko are of the highest rank of foxes in the Edo period (period between 1603 and 1868 in the history of Japan) , and in the essays Zen'an Zuihitsu (善庵随筆 Japanese literature) and Hokusō Sadan (北窓瑣談, Book of foxes) the foxes are ranked in the order of Tenko, Kūko, Kiko, and then Yako. Also, in the Nihon Shoki (Japan’s classical history), in the 9th year of Emperor Jomei  (34th Emperor of Japan), the great shooting star was written as 天狗 (normally read as Tengu) and was given the reading of Amatsu Kitsune, and from this, the essay on  Zen'an Zuihitsu put forth the theory that Tenko and Tengu are the same. Furthermore, at the first point of the Fushimi Inari-taisha (the head shrine of the god  Inari, located in Fushimi Ward in KyotoJapan), a male fox by the name of Osugi (小薄) is worshipped as Suehiro Daijin (末廣大神 Head or Leader).  However, these foxes are always the divine messengers or household of Inari no Kami, not Inari no Kami himself). In Ojika island (one of the Japanese islands) in the Nagasaki Prefecture (Nagasaki Prefecture was created by merging  the western half of the former province of Hizen with the island provinces of Tsushima and Iki), Facing China and Korea, the region around Hirado (a city located in Nagasaki province)  was a traditional center for traders and pirates.  The Tenko foxes posess a type of spirit, and it is said that those who are possessed (haunted) by it, will have a divination ability and a divine spiritual power.  

HINDU MYTHOLOGY

"They hunt fox for good luck" FROM : Online edition of  THE HINU. Saturday, January 27, 2001. By : A.V.Ragunathan, Salem, January 26, 2001.
(Note :  The places are in Salem  District , Tamil Nadu, India)

The villagers of the Kottavadi in Vazhapadi taluks  practice a strange custom-fox hunting. They believe that hunting of fox will bring them good luck. The village youths set the trap for the fox in nearby forest areas and once it is caught, they treat it with all care and affection. After keeping the fox for a day or two, they set it free into the forest. This is part of the rituals being carried out in the village for ages as part of the Pongal festival celebrations (In Janury). It is their firm belief that once they set sight on a fox immediately after the Pongal festival, it would bring them enormous good luck.  On the last day of the festival, the youth of the village set out on fox hunting in the foothills of Yercaud. This time, at least seven batches of youngsters fanned out to places like Singipuram, Thimmanacikenpatti, Karungadu, Nayinarpalayam Karadu, Komarasamyur Karadu, Kothumalai Karadu and Vellalapatti. These groups spread the net in areas where the foxes are believed to be frequenting. However, for eight consecutive days they could not succeed in getting even a single fox, but on the ninth day, the group at Kothumalai Karadu, was fortunate enough to catch a fox. It was an occasion for celebration, and the jubilant youths with all the fun-fare brought the animal to the Sri Chelliamman Temple for the public viewing. Soon after, the fox was let on the grounds, it was fed with milk and then was taken around the temple. Almost the entire village, 2,400-strong, gathered at the place to have a good look at the fox. Later, the fox was set free. The whole exercise had cost somewhere around Rs. 30,000, out of which Rs. 15,000 was borne by the panchayat union, and the rest by the donors. The panchayat president, Ms. Kamalam Krishnan, and other leading personalities of the area were present on the occasion. The prime occupation of the Kottavadi village is harvesting betelnuts and betel-leaves. They have an unshaken belief that if they encounter a fox face to face, it is a sign of good omen, and it would bring them prosperity. Hence, the villagers have been taking part in this age-old practice with great enthusiasm. The fox-hunting at Kottavadi is a harmless pastime which has been in vogue (craze) for the common good.                                           

Double Star : α (Alpha) Vulpecula is a giant double star.
Star Cluster : CR399 - An upside down Coathanger (Coat hanger)
 cluster. It has an amusing shape. It has 6 stars in a straight line with a hook formation of stars in the center. 

NGC6885 and NGC6940 are open clusters. 

Planetary Nebula
: M27 (NGC6853), the Dumbbell nebula has a
                              green glow. NGC6820 is a reflection nebula.

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210. SARATHAM 
/ 52. LACERTA 

Western and Indian representations. Location of View : Northern Sky - Midway to  North pole
                 { Star sizes are of relative magnitude & Not to Scale. Constellation's Primary Stars are shown }
                
       Over head  location
:
40 Degree North to 50 Degree North ( Latitude ).

VISIBILITY : Lacerta is a northern hemispheric constellation which means it can't be seen easily or at all,  from the southern hemisphere. It  lies in the Milky way. Lacerta was named by Polish astronomer Johannes Hevelius. It represents a Lizard formation.
MYTHOLOGY : Lacerta has been known by many different cultures and represents many different  things for these cultures throughout history.  Also, the behavioural pattern of the lizard has inspired various beliefs, myths and legends associated with the Sun.
EARLY CHRISTIANITY : Lizard is associated with the devil and with evil.
EGYPT : It is said that in spring, the lizards will climb an eastward facing wall and look to the east. When the Sun rises, the lizard's sight and the sight of some blinded person, will is returned. In ancient Egypt and Greek symbolism the lizard represented divine wisdom and good fortune.
GREEK : Lacerta represents the Lizard, as the constellation has an obscure zigzagging pattern.
In Chinese astronomy, northern Lacerta was the centre of a spidery shaped figure called Tengshe, the flying serpent.  In Greek symbolism the lizard represented divine wisdom and good fortune.
NEAR EAST & AUSTRALIA : Lizards have been associated with extreme heat in the Near East and in Australia, the aboriginal (native) believed that the sky would fall if you killed one.
ROMAN : In Roman mythology, lizards sleep through the winter and  wake up just after. So it symbolises both death and resurrection.
PACIFIC ISLANDS,  POLYNASIA  & MAORIS : Lizards are revered as a "heaven god."

HINDU METHOLOGY
Lizard in Thamizh language is Palli. And in Sanskrit it is Gothika. One creature seems to have a lot of impact not just by being a devotional creature, but also as a mechanism of communication between our world and God's kingdom - Devaloka. They say that when you are completely devotional, the Lord Himself comes in some form, and resides within the chamber where you worship Him. The lizard is considered to be a very important creature in such modes of communications. When a lizard steps into the pooja (prayer) room and stays there it's considered auspicious. They say that either your Guru (priest) or the Lord Himself rides on the lizard when they are "visiting" you. The nature of the lizard in such cases is quite different. They tend to be fearless, hang around the deep dark corners of the room and come closer to the devotee as and when they wish, sometimes it's too close for comfort. A family is considered blessed and the home is believed to have positive vibrations when lizards come to live within the walls of its puja (prayer) room. Lizards seem to have held a very strong place in the prayer! Killing or harming lizards is considered one of the greatest "doshams"(bad effects) committed ever. Even more intriguing is the fear that is triggered with the accumulation of "doshams",  when a lizard falls over a person. If a lizard fell over our head, something very inauspicious is going to happen, like probable death in the family, while if it falls on the foot it means travel is initiated. There may be dangers during the journey. So avoiding the travel was recommended.

LIZARD WITH GOD
Interestingly found only in the Varadaraja Perumal temple at Kanchipuram (Tamizh Nadu, India), is the silver and gold lizards on the ceiling of a small chamber in this temple. With mystical diagrams of the Sun and Moon near it, This  lizard is supposed to wipe out all the accumulated "doshams"(sins) if we touch it. There is an endless list of "doshams" (sins) given in the Hindu Almanac. The Sun, Moon and the lizard (palli) are related to astrology and give remedies with relation to the horoscopes, for a more peaceful living.
Two disciples of Gauthama Rishi used to fill and bring water every day for their Guru. One day, to their shock, they found a lizard jumping out the pot, when they placed it in front of their Guru. The angry Rishi cursed the two for their carelessness and they instantly turned them into Lizards. The 2 lizard disciples stayed at Kanchipuram, until Indra  the Head of the Devas (Immortal angels) came, as Elephant Gajendra, to worship Varadarajan Perumal along with Sun (Golden Color) and Moon (Silver Color). He relieved them from their curse. In memory of this, there is a golden lizard and a silver lizard outside the Lord Varadaraja’s Statue. Belief is that one will be relieved of all diseases, if one prays to Lord Varadarajan and touches the Lizard on the way out.

Alpha Lacerta : (α) is the bigest  star in the constellation.              
Star Cluster     :
NGC7243 is an open star cluster. 

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211. DEVAYANI / 13. ANDROMEDA

Western and Indian representations. Location of View : Northern Sky - Midway to  North pole
                 { Star sizes are of relative magnitude & Not to Scale. Constellation's Primary Stars are shown }
                
       Over head  location
:
20 Degree North to 50 Degree North ( Latitude ).
Visibility : Southen hemisphere - October to December
               Northern hemisphere - August to February

 She walks in beauty, like the night.  Of cloudless climes and starry skies;
 And all that's best of dark and bright. Meet in her aspect and her eyes;
Thus mellowed to that tender light.  Which heaven to gaudy day denies.

Lord Byron (1788 to 1824) was chief among the romantic poets of his age, but he wasn’t talking about the beautiful Andromeda when he composed his classic poem.  But the  mythical princess Queen Cassiopeia would certainly have thought of this Byron’s poem was certainly about her beautiful daughter, Andromeda. Cassiopeia even went so far as to boast that she and her daughter, were both more beautiful than the Nereids. who were beautiful sea nymphs, with a female  head, usually accompanied Poseidon (a Greek sea God), and help out sailors in danger.                    

GREEK MYTHOLOGY.                                                                                                                                                                                               

Derived from Greek mythology, Andromeda was the daughter of Cassiopeia and Cepheus – the     king and queen of ancient Aethopia (modern day Ethiopia). Unfortunately, her mother was so       vain (exclusively high opinion) that she thought herself to be more beautiful than the daughters     of Nereus, a god of the sea, which angered the sea god Poseidon. To punish the mother,                 Andromeda was chained to a rock of the coast as a sacrifice for a sea monster, Cetus (another       constellation above the equator. Andromeda escaped this fate, thanks to the intervention of           Perseus (another constellation in line with Andromeda in the North) – the greatest Greek hero and slayer (killer) of monsters, before Heracles. For rescuing her, he demanded Andromeda to become his wife, which her parents happily           consented to. The two married, had nine children together, and founded the kingdom of Mycenae and its Persideae dynasty.    After Andromeda’s death, Athena placed her in the sky as a constellation, to honour her.                                                         

 HINDU  MYTHOLOGY                                                                                                                                                                 
In 
Hindu mythology, Devayani (
Sanskrit) was a dearest daughter of Shukracharya, Daitya         Vedhantha (Daitha version of Hindu philosophy)  guru (teacher of the Asuras, Devils with ill    will)), and his wife Jayanthi, daughter of Indra,  the head of the Dhevas (Heavenly angels of      good characters)                                                                                                                         
Kacha and Sukracharya
: Kacha, the son of Brihapathi, (guru or teacher of Devas, Heavely      angels with good will)  was sent to Shukracharya, to learn
the “Mrithyu Sanjivini Manthra”     (technique of bringing dead back to life). Kacha’s father tells him to impress Devayani, dearest daughter of Shukracharya, in order to get the blessings of Shukracharya.                                   

Kacha and Devayani : Kacha follows his father’s advise, and unknown to him Devayani falls in love with him. Shukracharya's other disciples wanted to kill Kacha, as he was the son of their rival Brihaspathi. They thought Kacha could do harm to them, if he learns Mrithyu Sanjivini Manthra. They try to kill him twice but Shukracharya brings Kacha back to life on Devayani's   request. At last they burn Kacha, mix his ashes in alcohol and gave that to Shukracharya. Shukracharya realises that, and       asks Kacha to come out of his stomach.  Kacha comes out and brings the dead Shukracharya back to life with the help of the Manthra. Kacha starts his journey back to Deva loka (Heaven), and Devayani expresses her love for him and asks him to        marry her. Kacha tells her that, now she is like a sister to him, as she is the daughter of his guru, and he has also come out of  her father’s stomach.   This is equivalent to her father is a  father to him also, according to the Hindu philosophy. Devayani    gets angry on hearing this, and she curses him that he would not be able to use the Mrithyu Sanjivini Mantra. Kacha curses     her back  that she wouldn't get a husband of strong and good  character.                                                                                  

Devayani and Sharmishtha : Sharmishtha,  was the daughter of Vrishaparva, the Asura (Evil doers)  king, for whom                Shukracharya was a guru or teacher. One day Sharmishtha, daughter  of the king Vrishaparva and Devayani, daughter of        the  sage Shukracharya, went to bathe in a forest pool,  not far from their home. After bathing, Sharmishtha confuses              Devayani's  sari  as hers, and puts it on. Devayani returns, scolds Sharmishtha, for her mistake. Devayani also  downgrades      Sharmishtha with the insult that herself is the daughter of Shukracharya (Shukracharya being a sage and high priest and         indeed the guru of all the Asuras and not a mere employee), and Vrishparva's and their Kingdom lives on his blessings. This   slur on herself and her father Vrishparva,  infuriates (creates anger to) Sharmishtha. With the help of her servants, she throws the naked Devayani into a well, and leaves the  foforest.                                                                                                            

Devayani and Yayathi : Later Yayathi, son of Nahusha, comes to the well for water and helps Devayani to climb out of it. She comes back and stays away from capital and tells her father that she wouldn't come back to the capital till Sharmishtha          becomes her servant. Shukracharya also leaves the capital to stay with his dearest daughter. This makes the kingdom              unstable, without the brains and powers of Shukracharya. At last Sharmista tells her father Vrishaparva that she would go as a servant to Devayani to protect the kingdom. Devayani comes back to  capital along with her father and enjoys the servitude (services)  of Sharmista.  Some days later Devayani goes to a picnic in the forest along with Sharmishtha and other servants.   There Yayathi comes for hunting and they meet again. This time she brings him to her father and tells him that they would      like to marry. Shukracharya gives his consent and tells Yayathi that he should take care of Devayani and Sharmishtha too, as she is also a princess, but he should not have nuptial (sexual) relation with her. Yayathi marries Devayani and looks after her  well.   After some time, Yayathi meets Sharmishtha and is captivated by her beauty and intelligence. Now,  Sharmishtha also   fell in   love with the King Yayathi. However, the promise made to Shukracharya and the fatal consequences holds him back.  In the end, his passion proved stronger than his virtues and he took Sharmishtha as his second wife.  Devayani gives birth    to two sons Yadhu and Dhurvasu.  Sharmishtha gives birth to three sons Dhruhyu,Anu and Puru.                                     
Devayani and Sharmishtha : Devayani comes to know about her husband's relation with Sharmishtha and complaints to her   father.  Shukracharya curses the young Yayati to get old age, for giving mental pain to his daughter. But later he tells him       that, if one of his sons could take his old age and give him his youth back, he could escape from the curse for some time.         Yayati asks all his sons for their youth but everyone rejects except Puru. (son through Sharmishtha). Yayati makes him his      descendant, who gives rise to Puru vamsha (dynasty) later. After enjoying the youthness for some time, Yayati gives his youth back to his son Puru, along with his kingdom. Devayani and Yayati leave to the forest to spend time peacefully and engage in religious activities,  directed as per Dharma (Hindu Philosophy). They both die there after some time. His son Puru created     the Puru-dynasty. Devayani's son Yadhu created the Yadhu-dynasty (SomaVanshi or Dynasty of the Moon).  Persons born in this dynasty were called Yadhavas, in which Lord Krishna was adopted  later.                                                                          

Star Groups :  Devayani (Andromeda), Sharmishtha (Cassiopeia) and Yayadhi (Perseus) form a star group in the sky between the  Latitudes from 20N to 70N, adjacent to each other.

Bright Star    : α (Alpha) Andromeda (Sirah is a blue white bright star).
Double Stars : γ (Gamma) Andromeda (Alamac) is a glorious double star. 56 is a pair of yellow giant star.
Star Clusters : NGC752 is a cluster of about 100 stars
Galaxies : M31 (NGC224) is a spiral glaxy. M32 (NGC221) is a satellite galaxy.
Planetary Nebula : NGC7662 is a fuzzy blue-green disc with an elliptical outline.

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212. SHARMISHTAM / 26. CASSIOPEIA 
Western and Indian representations. Location of View : Northern Sky - Midway to  North pole
                 { Star sizes are of relative magnitude & Not to Scale. Constellation's Primary Stars are shown }
                
       Over head  location
:
50 Degree North to 70 Degree North ( Latitude ).

VISIBILITY : 20 South to all Northern hemisphere, all throughout the year. It is clear in
                       November. It was found by the Greek astronomer Ptolemy, in the 2nd Century.
                       It has a distinctive W shape.
GREEK MYTHOLOGY : Cassopiea was the wife of  King Cepheus of Ethiopia. She
was boating  that she was more beautiful than the sea Nereids (sea nymphs), fathered by Titan Nereus. The Nereids appealed the sea god Posidon to punish Cassiopeia, for her claims.  The sea god obliged and sent Cetus, a sea monster (whale, located in the same region of the sky).  King Cepheus sought the help of an Oracle (Greek Priest). Oracle told him that in order to appease Poseidon, they have to sacrifice their daughter Andromeda to the monster Cetus. Reluctantly, they agreed and chained their daughter Andromeda to a rock. But Andromeda was saved by the Greek hero Perseus. 
INDIAN MYTHOLOGY

D
evyani was the daughter of Shukra, guru (teacher and adviser) to the Asuras (Heavenly Evil doers). She was beautiful and proud and was devoted to her father. Devyani’s dearest friend was Sharmishtha, the daughter of the king to whom Shukra was an advisor. The two young women did everything together and were like sisters even though the lives they led were entirely different,  Sharmishtha’s life overflowed with opulence (richness) and luxury, whereas Devyani and her father adopted the simpler ways of forest dwellers.  One day, both the young women went to the river to bathe along with Sharmishtha’s royal retinue (accompanied by servants). They left their clothes on the river bank and soon, they were completely absorbed in playing games and swimming in the water. When they grew tired and emerged from the river to dress, Devyani accidentally put on Sharmishtha’s clothes. When Sharmishtha, the princess, saw this, she was enraged (got angry). She accused Devyani of coveting (wearing) her fine silks and getting above her level. She reminded Devyani that she is the daughter of a low level employee of her father, who pays Devyani’s father a salary. Devyani was aghast (got angry) and retorted that she was the daughter of a Brahmin and that in fact, Sharmishtha was a social inferior (Shathriya). The verbal insults quickly accelerated into a physical fight. Sharmishtha ripped off her garment that Devyani was wearing, and pushed the naked woman into a well. As it turned out, Devyani’s fate was to be rescued by a king Yayati, who took her to his Palace. Much later, further trouble started with Sharmishtha. 

Sociology : But for the moment, let us consider the way a relationship between two women is depicted in this story. The 2 women were like sisters, as we are told, and yet, at the most critical moment in their relationship, it is the Caste and Hierarchy that devides between them. It is clear  that Sharmishtha has never actually thought of Devayani as an equal. When she pushed Devayani into the well  (literally and figuratively), Devayani, too, reacted with her spirit of Brahmin birth, and uses the powers of her father as a yard stick.  This is yet another iteration of the broken relationship between kings (kshatriyas by cast) and priests  (brahmins by cast), as each woman cite their father’s position as the source of their own superiority. This is not a girl-to-girl squabble (fight) with the borrowed feather's status. Did Devyani covet (wear and enjoy) Sharmishtha’s fine garments, with an envy for her friend’s riches and comforts ? Or, did she put them on mistakenly ? The princess does not care which, and taunts (insults badly) her friend by mocking her father’s position as someone who is economically dependant on her father ? In the Indian context,  Sharmishtha’s pointed insult is based on caste, mixed with  wealth and class of her father. Devayani also replies in the same way namely, of caste superiority and her father's knowledge and powers. The measure of how deep these provocations are, and how deeply both felt, lies in the fact that Sharmishtha abandons her friend to die in the well.
Note : The Vedhic scriptures have created a Varnasramam (Colour code) identifying the 4 Casts of people.  As per that, an ideal Brahmin has spiritual, mental and yogic powers, intelligent,  give a low value to the wealth possession and lead a simple life. They are considered to be a higher cast. An ideal Kshathriya has physical powers, cunning, acquire large wealth and kingdom, and live luxuriously, but less brain and spiritual powers. They are considered to be a lower cast than the Brahmins

Devayani and Yayathi : Later Yayathi, (son of Nahusha), who came to the well for water and helps Devayani to climb out of it. She comes back and stays away from capital and tells her father that she wouldn't come back to the capital till Sharmishtha becomes her servant. Shukracharya also leaves the capital to stay with his dearest daughter. This makes the kingdom unstable, without the brains and powers of Shukracharya. At last Sharmista tells her father Vrishaparva that she would go as a servant to Devayani to protect the kingdom. Devayani comes back to capital along with her father and enjoys the servitude (services)  of Sharmista.  Some days later Devayani goes to a picnic in the forest along with Sharmishtha and other servants. There Yayathi comes for hunting and they meet again. This time she brings him to her father and tells him that they would like to marry. Shukracharya gives his consent and tells Yayathi that he should take care of Devayani and Sharmishtha too, as she is also a princess, but he should not have nuptial (sexual) relation with her. Yayathi marries Devayani and looks after her well.  (Note : The attitude and virtue of Sukracharya, a Brahmin, who has practiced Yoga and capable of teaching and applying “Mrithyu Sanjivini Manthra”, advices Yayathi to look after Sharmishtha also, who pushed his dearest daughter Devayani into a well, and left her to die). After some time, Yayathi meets Sharmishtha and is captivated by her beauty and intelligence. Now,  Sharmishtha also fell in love with the King Yayathi. However, the promise made to Shukracharya and the fatal consequences holds him back. In the end, his passion proved stronger than his virtues and he took Sharmishtha as his second wife.  Devayani gives birth to two sons Yadhu and Dhurvasu.  Sharmishtha gives birth to three sons Dhruhyu, Anu and Puru.                                                                                                      

Devayani and Sharmishtha : Devayani comes to know about her husband's relation with Sharmishtha and                complaints to her father.  Shukracharya curses the young Yayati to get old age, for giving mental pain to his            daughter. But later he tells him that, if one of his sons could take his old age and give him his youth back, he could escape from the curse for some time. Yayati asks all his sons for their youth but everyone rejects except Puru. (son  through Sharmishtha). Yayati makes him his descendant, who gives rise to Puru vamsha (dynasty) later. After          enjoying the youthness for some time, Yayati gives his youth back to his son Puru, along with his kingdom.             Devayani and Yayati leave to the forest to spend time peacefully and engage in religious activities,  directed as per   Dharma (Hindu Philosophy). They both die there after some time. His son Puru created the Puru-dynasty.               Devayani's son Yadhu created the Yadhu-dynasty (SomaVanshi or Dynasty of the Moon).  Persons born in this        dynasty were called Yadhavas, in which Lord Krishna was adopted  later.     

Star Groups :  Devayani (Andromeda), Sharmishtha (Cassiopeia) and Yayadhi (Perseus) form a star group in the sky between the  Latitudes from 20N to 70N, adjacent to each other.                                                                      

Variable Star : γ (Gamma) Cassiopiea (Taih) is a blue giant, throwing out shells of gases at
                        irregular intervals, changes its brightness.
Double and multiple stars : η Cassiopiea is a beautiful double star with yellow and red
                                           components.
Star clusters : M52 (NGC7654) with a orange star at one end.  NGC457 is arranged in chains.
                      NGC559,  NGC637, NGC 1805 are open clusters. NGC663 (Caldwell10) is an open
                      cluter with about 400 stars
Nebula : NGC7635 (Caldwell11) is a Bubble nebula

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ASSUMPTIONS : 1) The total Energy in the cyber space is E (2) The total mass equivalent to  this total Energy is M.  FORMULA :  Energy and Mass relationship is E = MC2 as fixed by Albert Einstein. C =  The velocity of light.
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  1. Universe is made up of only two manifestations. They are Energy and Matter (Mass).

  2. Universe is oscillating in this forward and backward processes of Energy & Mass  conversion, in a Simple Harmonic pattern. 

  3. At one point of time, the Universe will reach a status of only Energy (E) manifestation,  without any Matter (M = 0). E Joules = M X 0.101971621298 kilogram.

  4. At a diametrically opposite point in time, the Universe will reach a status of only Matter (M) manifestation, without any Energy (E = 0).  M Kilograms = E X  (9 X 1016 ) Joules.

  5. In any intermediate stage, there will be partial Energy and partial Matter. But the total (Energy + Matter) = Constant.

  6. Everything in the Universe is an illusion of slowly inter-changing Energy to Matter manifestation cycle,  in the Space substrate, functioning in a Simple Harmonic pattern, From 0 to +360 Degrees forward and 360 to 0 Degrees backward.

  7. The time required for the forward and backward conversions are so large, that no living species can exist and see.

  8. Hence all the laws of Energy are applicable to the Mass (Matter), and all the laws of Mass (Matter) are applicable to the Energy.

Gazing the sky, naming the stars, wondering about their configuration and movements provide only an external happiness. While an exploration of their origin, their existence and their expected future provide an innovative rejoice. This foresightedness and motivation inducted by my father is the base for the development of this page on Stars and Sky.

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